VINTAGE OWNER'S MANUALS, SERVICE MANUALS, BROCHURES AND PUBLICATIONS
FAQ
Your Recent Purchases
Contact Us
Home
Welcome to Automatic Ephemera, an independent organization/library for historical research and education, sharing public domain documents relating to vintage products.


 


Please search through our database, we have hundreds of available documents...

Search Publisher: 
   Restrict to Product: 

Full Text Search of Automatic Ephemera:   

Clear and Start New Search


Review Selections & Checkout


1967 Philco-Ford Clothes Dryer Brochures


Published by Philco in 1967-- Here are brochures for the entire 1967 line of Philco gas and electric clothes dryers. Full images, control panel views and specifications and machine price list included.

Models include: DG-6G8, DE-6G8, DG-6G4, DE-6G4, DG-6G3, DE-6G3, DG-6G2, DE-6G2,

Number of Pages: 20
File Size: 16mb
Download Fee: $8.99

  Add 1967 Philco-Ford Clothes Dryer Brochures to cart
Please note that all publications presented here at Automatic Ephemera are on average between 35 and 85 years old. This information is presented as a educational/historical reference on vintage products of the past. Any trademarks or brand names appearing on this site are for nominative use to accurately describe the content contained in these publications. The associated trademarks are the sole property of their registered owners as there is no affiliation between Automatic Ephemera and these companies. No connection to or endorsement by the trademark owners is to be construed.


Review Selections & Checkout

Here are the 25 most recent documents added to the library...
Add
High-Res
Download
to Cart
Click Thumbnail for More Information Title
and
Description
Product Year # of Pages File
Size
Download
Fee
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download 1953 Bendix Economat Automatic Washer Owners Manual
Here is the complete owners manual and operating instructions to the top of the line Bendix Economat washer with the rubber squeeze tub.


Automatic Washers
Published by:
Bendix
1953 28 29mb $11.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download Whirlpool Washer Owners Manual Model LXA8700
Here is the complete Operating Instructions and Laundry Guide to Whirlpool Automatic Washer Model LXA8700.


Automatic Washers
Published by:
Whirlpool
1970 24 42mb $11.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download 1989 General Electric Appliances Catalog
Here is a full catalog with images and complete specifications for the 1989 line of GE appliances.

Products include:
Refrigerators/Freezers
Cooking Appliances
Microwaves
Washers
Dryers
Dishwashers
Disposers
Trash Compactors
Room Air Conditioners
Full Catalog
Published by:
General Electric
1989 92 208mb $14.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download 1961 Kenmore Washer Owners Manual
Here is the complete owners manual and operating instructions to Kenmore automatic washer 700 series/11471 series models.


Automatic Washers
Published by:
Kenmore
1961 20 25mb $11.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download 1970-1973 Whirlpool Dishwasher Service Manual
Here is the comprehensive service manual to all Whirlpool built-in and portable dishwashers from the early 1970's.

Models include:
SVU60, SVU70, SVU80, SVU90, SVU100, SWU60, SWU70, SWU80, SWU90, SWU100, SVF60 SVF70 SVF8O, SVF90, SVF100, SWF60 SWF70 SWF8O, SWF90, SWF100, SWF100-2, SXU300-0, SXU300-1, SXU300-2, SXU300-3, SXU300-4, SXU301-0, SXU325-0, SXU325-1, SXU325-2, SXU330-0, SXU330-1, SXU350-0, SXU400-0, SXU400-1, SXU400-2, SXU400-3, SXU400-4, SXU430-0, SXU440-0, SXU440-1, SXU450-1, SXU500-0, SXU500-1, SXU500-2, SXU500-3, SXU500-4, SXU500-5, SXU530-0, SXU530-1, SXU530-2, SXU530-3, SXU600-0, SXU600-1, SXU600-2, SXU600-3, SXU600-4, SXU600-5, SXF300, SXF300-1, SXF300-3, SXF300-4, SXF325-0, SXF325-1, SXF325-2, SXF330-0, SXF300-1, SXF350-0, SXF400-0, SXF400-1, SXF400-2, SXF400-3, SXF400-4, SXF430-0, SXF440-0, SXF440-1, SXF450-0, SXF500-0, SXF500-1, SXF500-2, SXF500-3, SXF500-4, SXF500-5, SXF530-0, SXF530-1, SXF600-0, SXF600-1, SXF600-2, SXF600-3, SXF600-4, SXF600-5.
Dishwashers
Published by:
Whirlpool
1973 185 150mb $14.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download 1972 Frigidaire Appliances Catalog
Here is a fun catalog showing off all of Frigidaire's appliance line for 1972.


Full Catalog
Published by:
Frigidaire
1972 24 67mb $8.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download 1957 Westinghouse Laundromat Owners Manual
Here is the complete owners manual and operating instructions to the top-of-the-line Westinghouse Automatic Washer.


Automatic Washers
Published by:
Westinghouse
1957 36 39mb $11.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download 1951 General Electric Automatic Washer Use and Care Guide
Here is the complete owners manual and operating instructions to AW-5 Series of General Electric automatic washers.


Automatic Washers
Published by:
General Electric
1951 16 18mb $11.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download 1957 Westinghouse Dryer Owners Manual
Here is the complete owners manual and operating instructions to the top-of-the-line Westinghouse Clothes Dryer.


Clothes Dryers
Published by:
Westinghouse
1957 24 27mb $11.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download Maytag Automatic Washer Service Manual 1984
Comprehensive service manual for all Maytag Automatic Washers made from 1966 into the 1990s. Includes Specifications, Installation, Trouble Shooting, Service Procedures, Timer Charts and Wiring Diagrams.

Models include: A112, A212, A312, A412, A512, A612, A712, A510, A610, A710, A810, A110, A210, A310, A410, A806, A608, A408, A308, A208.

Automatic Washers
Published by:
Maytag
1984 158 165mb $14.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download 1996 Maytag Washers and Dryers Brochure
Full brochure highlighting the 1996 line of Maytag Dependable Care Washers and Dryers. Full images and specifications included.


Automatic Washers & Dryers
Published by:
Maytag
1996 14 33mb $8.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download Maytag Clothes Dryer Service Manual 1984
Comprehensive service manual for all Maytag Dryers made from 1966 into the 1990s. Includes Specifications, Installation, Trouble Shooting, Service Procedures, Timer Charts and Wiring Diagrams.

Models include: DE212, DG212, DE312, DG312, DE412, DG412, DE512, DG512, DE110, DG110, DE210, DG210, DE410, DG410, DE510, DG510, DE610, DG610, DE710, DG5710, DE810, DG810, DE91, DE106, DG106, DE107, DG107, DE308, DG308, DE309, DG309, DE408, DG408, DE409, DG409, DE608, DG608, DE808, DG808.
Clothes Dryers
Published by:
Maytag
1984 158 154mb $14.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download 1988 Whirlpool Dishwashers Brochure
Sales literature brochure highlighting in the 1988 line of Whirlpool dishwashers. Models include:

DU1099XT DU72DOXS DU74DOXS DU76DOXS DU78DOXS DU810DXT DUBJDOXT DU8500XT DU8700XT DU89DOXT DU9000XR DU9500XS DU9700XR
Full images and specifications included.
Dishwashers
Published by:
Whirlpool
1988 24 56mb $8.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download 1966 Whirlpool Dishwasher Use and Care Guide
Full Use and Care Guide along with installation instructions to Whirlpool dishwasher models SPU80 and SPC200.


Dishwashers
Published by:
Whirlpool
1966 11 17mb $11.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download 1973 Whirlpool Dishwasher Use and Care Guide
Full Use and Care Guide to Whirlpool dishwasher model SDF7000 and SDU7000.


Dishwashers
Published by:
Whirlpool
1973 16 33mb $11.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download Westinghouse Laundromat Model LCC30 Owners Manual
Full Owners manual and use/care guide to Westinghouse Laundromat automatic home washer model LCC30.


Automatic Washers
Published by:
Westinghouse
1963 24 20mb $11.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download Westinghouse Laundromat Model LLC30 Owners Manual
Full Owners manual and use/care guide to Westinghouse Laundromat automatic home washer model LLC30.


Automatic Washers
Published by:
Westinghouse
1963 24 21mb $11.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download 1954 Norge Automatic Washer and Dryer Brochures
Here are some beautiful sales literature brochures highlighting Norge's 1954 line of automatic washers, semi-automatic washers and clothes dryers. Suggested retail price list at end of file.

Models include:

Automatic washers: AW450, AW-425, AW-422SP, AW-410

Semi-Automatic washers: AW-405

Dryers: AG-730, AE-620, AG-710, AE-610.
Automatic Washers & Dryers
Published by:
Norge
1954 20 66mb $8.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download Maytag Washer A702-A702S Owners Manual
Here is the complete owners manual and operating instructions packed with every Maytag A702/A702S (S is the suds-saver model) from the early 1960's.


Automatic Washers
Published by:
Maytag
1962 22 22mb $11.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download Speed Queen Combination Washer-Dryer Facts Manual
Here is the very rare Facts Manual produced by Speed Queen when they introduced their Washer-Dryer combination machine to highlight all the features and conveniences of having one machine do both the washing and drying.


Combination Washer/Dryers
Published by:
Speed Queen
1962 16 36mb $8.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download 1955 Kelvinator Automatic Washer Owners Manual
Complete use/care guide and owners manual to Kelvinator Automatic washer model AW-2 and Semi-automatic washer model SW.


Automatic Washers
Published by:
Kelvinator
1955 32 30mb $11.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download 1965 General Electric Automatic Washer Operating Guide
Here is complete operating instructions and use/care guide to GE washer models WA-832A and WA-837A.


Automatic Washers
Published by:
General Electric
1965 26 51mb $11.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download Brochure to the Very First Whirlpool Automatic Washer
Here is a wonderful brochure Whirlpool produced back in '47 when they introduced their very first automatic washer.


Automatic Washers
Published by:
Whirlpool
1947 12 38mb $11.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download 1950 Westinghouse Laundromat Brochure
Here is a beautiful brochure from Westinghouse showing off their new 1950 model Laundromat model L-5.


Automatic Washers
Published by:
Westinghouse
1950 16 42mb $8.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download 1957 Speed Queen Washer Operating Instructions and Brochure
Complete sales literature brochure as well the operating instruction guide to 1957 Speed Queen automatic washer models A18 and A19.


Automatic Washers
Published by:
Speed Queen
1957 8 23mb $11.99

25 Random Items from the Library
Add
High-Res
Download
to Cart
Click Thumbnail for More Information Title
and
Description
Product Year # of Pages File
Size
Download
Fee
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download 1956 Frigidaire Automatic Washer Owners Manual
Here is the rare owners manual to the 1956 line of Frigidaire automatic washers. Models include the WI-56 Unimatic, WD-56 Pulsamatic and WS-56 Pulsamatic washers.


Automatic Washers
Published by:
Frigidaire
1956 32 8mb $11.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download 1969 Thermador Built-In Cooking Appliances Brochure
Brochure with full images and specifications for Thermador's cooking appliances of the late 1960s. Includes built-in ovens, 30" drop in ranges, cook-tops, range hoods, oven ventilators, warming drawer and rotisserie.


Ranges/Stoves
Published by:
Thermador
1969 8 9mb $8.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download Operating Instructions and The Laundry Primer
Owners Manual and Operating Instructions for Whirlpool washers Models LPA 5500; LPA 5505 (with SUDS-MISER® system )


Automatic Washers
Published by:
Whirlpool
1966 22 26mb $11.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download 1973 Smith-Corona Typewriter Brochures
Here are some wonderful sales literature brochures from Smith-Corona highlighting their line of portable typewriters.

Models include: Coronet Super 12, Coronet Super 10, Electra 120, Electric 12, Electric 10, Corsair Deluxe and the Super G.
Home Products
Published by:
Smith-Corona
1973 10 16mb $8.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download Catalog of Replacement Parts for KitchenAid 2 Series Top Loading Portable Dishwashers
Full parts catalog showing illustrations of all parts along with part numbers.

Models include KD-2P and KDC-2P.

This document makes doing internet searches for vintage parts much easier as you will have the official KitchenAid part numbers.
Dishwashers
Published by:
KitchenAid
1972 24 11mb $14.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download 1960 General Electric Automatic Washer Service Manual
Here is the comprehensive service manual to all 1960 GE Washers. These are the last year of the solid-basket machines and the first year that GE introduced a spin-brake to stop the tub from coasting at the end of the spin cycle.

Models include: WA-1055 WA-1050 WA-953 WA-855 WA-850 WA-755 WA-750 WA-635 WA-630 and WA-450.

Sections include:
Models - Features Chart
Description
General Description And Operation
Full Specifications
Installation Instructions
Disassembly
Transmission Service
Timer/Control Service
Electrical Components
Electrical Circuits
Wiring Diagrams And Schematics
Catalog Information
Automatic Washers
Published by:
General Electric
1960 122 61mb $12.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download How to use your new Lewyt Model 77 on Big Wheels
Here is everything that came packed with a brand new model 77 Lewyt vacuum cleaner in 1955. Owners manual and operating instructions, Work saving accessories that make your housework easier, How to use your Lewyt accessory racks and the card that was placed around the "Power Dial".


Vacuum Cleaners
Published by:
Lewyt
1955 23 18mb $11.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download 1966 Philco Duomatic Washer-Dryer Brochures
Here are brochures for the entire 1966 line of Philco Duomatic Combination Washer-Dryers. Full images and specifications and machine price list included.

Models include: CE-7G8, CG-7G8, CE-7G6, CG-730, CE-730.
Combination Washer/Dryers
Published by:
Philco
1966 16 21mb $8.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download 1958 Westinghouse Electric Range Owners Manuals
Here are the owners manuals to most of the 1958 line of Westinghouse Electric Ranges and Ovens all packaged together in one complete hi-resolution pdf file.

Models include:
Imperial 40 AL-40
Ambassador 40 BL-40
Imperial 30 AL-30
Ambassador 30 BL-30
Aristocrat 40 CL-40
Aristocrat 30 CL-30
BLS-40,
BLK-30,
BLS-30,
CLS-40,
CLS-30

Congratulations on the addition of the new Westinghouse Electric
Range to your kitchen. You will find it one of the most responsive
and efficient electric servants you have ever owned ... You will
love the speed, accuracy and ease of use.

You'll find that many cooking operations that once took a lot of
time can now be done automatically. No longer will you have to
stand at the range and stir foods while they cook ... or lift lids
to see whether water has boiled away. No longer will you have to
guess when food is done. The accurate, automatic controls of
your Westinghouse Electric Range will give you the same fine
results, day in and day out, with a minimum of effort on your part.
Probably you have a fine reputation for your skill in baking. The
Miracle-Sealed Oven of your Westinghouse Range will delight
you ... it will give you perfect results every time ... without worry
on your part.

Perhaps, too, you have several pet recipes for foods cooked on
the Range surface . . . foods done exactly to the degree of doneness
that you prefer. Because your Westinghouse Range surface
units will deliver any degree of heat you select, you can cook
these dishes to perfection every time.

To get the results your Westinghouse is capable of giving, it is
important that you read this book carefully. In it you will find
detailed instructions on the care and use of your range. If you
follow these instructions carefully, your range will' give you many
years of trouble free service and you and your range will become
wonderful cooking partners.

Ranges/Stoves
Published by:
Westinghouse
1958 84 84mb $12.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download Norge Wringer Washer Operating Instructions
Full operating instructions for Norge wringer washers from the early 70's.


Wringer Washers
Published by:
Norge
1970 4 2mb $12.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download 1956 General Electric Dishwasher/Disposall Product Man
1956 General Electric Service Manual covering Automatic Dishwashers and Food Waste Disposers.

GE's Product Man Service Manuals were produced monthly to keep service personnel up to date with new products, appliance specifications, appliance service instructions, troubleshooting procedures, older product repair and parts changes, installation instructions, customer complaints and recommendations, testing procedures, tools for repairs, wiring diagrams, timer charts, appliance history and evolution and other important information regarding their appliances.
Dishwashers
Published by:
General Electric
1956 55 31mb $12.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download How to use and care for your Youngstown Kitchens Automatic Dishwasher
"Completely Modernizes Dishwashing". Full owners manual and use/care guide packed with every Youngstown top-loading, Jet-Tower dishwasher in the late 40's and early 50's.


Dishwashers
Published by:
Youngstown Kitchens
1950 12 8mb $11.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download KitchenAid Model 3C Mixer Owners Manual
Full owners manual, operating instructions and a ton of recipes for the Model 3C planetary kitchen mixer. Full instructions and recipes for using the following attachment as well:

Can Opener,
Food Chopper/Meat Grinder
Fruit Juicer,
Ice Cream Freezer,
Knife Sharpener,
Oil Dropper,
Pea Sheller,
Silver Buffer,
Slicer and Shredder.
Small Appliances
Published by:
KitchenAid
1954 40 26mb $11.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download All New and Improved Easy Automatic Dryers
Beautiful brochure for the Easy Automatic Dryers models DDC and DDC-E (gas and electric).


Clothes Dryers
Published by:
Easy
1955 4 5mb $8.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download Your Guide to Washday Drying Ease with your Maytag Dryer
Here is the complete owners manual and operating instruction to Maytag's most Top of the Line air-flow style clothes dryers from 1960.

Models include: 641C and 741C.
Clothes Dryers
Published by:
Maytag
1960 20 7mb $11.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download Electrolux Commercial Wet-Dry Vacuum Cleaner Owners Manual
Here is the complete owners manual and operating instructions to the Electrical Commercial Automatic Vacuum Cleaner with Wet & Dry Pickup.


Vacuum Cleaners
Published by:
Electrolux Vacuum (now Aerus)
1964 15 34mb $11.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download Electrical Merchandising Week - February 1 1960
In 1960 Electrical Merchandising Magazine had changed over to a weekly tabloid style Newspaper from a monthly magazine. Essentially it is a condensed version of Electrical Merchandising.

Highlights of this issue include the introduction of Maytag's All Push Button washer, Waste King's New Dishwasher Spray Arm, Easy's new bottom of the line washer/dryer combos, KitchenAid's new portable-hand held mixer and an Appliance Store with Built In Features.
Trade Publications
Published by:
Electrical Merchandising
1960 32 86mb $8.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download 1975 Frigidaire Electric Range Tech-Talk Service Manual
Very comprehensive service manual for all 1975 Frigidaire Electric Ranges. Models include:

RS-30, RSE-36, RDG-35, RDG-38, RCDEG-38, RCDEG-37C, RD-15, RDG-20, RDE-20, RCIE-71, RCDG-67V, RGDEG-637V, RCIEG-639CV.
Ranges/Stoves
Published by:
Frigidaire
1975 107 76mb $14.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download The Maytag News - August 1955
Here is a facsinating issue of the Maytag's employee and dealer magazine. It full of news and information about Maytag in the mid 50's. There is even an article on demonstrating your AMP by hooking it up to a Maytag Wringer Washer!


Miscellaneous
Published by:
Maytag
1955 24 29mb $8.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download KD-17 Series-Automatic Dishwashers Service Manual
Detailed service manual for the 17 series of Kitchen Dishwashers, such as models KDS-17, KDI-17, KDC-17, KDS-57, KDI-57 and KDC-57.

Sections Include:
Air Gap & Fill Tube
Control Panel
Cycle Description and Operation Charts
Detergent Dispenser Door
Latch Mechanism
Doorl Gasket
Door Springs
Pump
Drain Valve
Electrical Cord Reel
Evaporation Channel
Field Wiring Compartment
Fill Valve
Flow-Thru Drying Assy.
Ground Screw Indicator
Light Assembly
Inner Door Assy.
Latch Switches
Lower Door Baffle
Lower Front Panel
Motor
Outer Door Panel
Over Fill Control Switch
Program Switch
Rinse Agent Dispenser
SaniGuade Filter
Service Tips
Shaft Seal
Sheath Heater
Tank Seal Assembly
Thermostat & Thermal Protector
Timer
Timer Sequence Charts
Upper Rack Track
Upper Spray System
Wiring Harnesses
Wash Pump
Wiring Diagrams

Dishwashers
Published by:
KitchenAid
1974 44 25mb $14.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download Hoover Electric Broiler-Oven Brochures
Brochures spanning a few years in the mid 1970s for the Electric Broiler-Oven.


Small Appliances
Published by:
Hoover
1975 6 13mb $8.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download 1957 Philco-Bendix Tumble Action Washer Brochures
These brochures were produced right after the laundry division of Bendix was purchased by Philco. They highlight the first automatic washing machines branded Philco-Bendix. Models include WGG-C and WGG-D.


Automatic Washers
Published by:
Philco
1957 6 7mb $8.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download Early Kenmore Dishwasher Owners Manual
I'm guessing this book is from around 1956. This is probably the first front-loading home dishwasher ever marketed by Kenmore. It's made by D&M. The dishwasher in the earlier Sears catalogs was marketed under the name Homart as a top-loading machine.

Full operating instructions, cycle chart, installation instructions and parts list included.
Dishwashers
Published by:
Kenmore
1956 36 40mb $12.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download 1955 Frigidaire Refrigerator Owners Manual
Here is the complete owners manual and use/care guide to all 1955 Frigidaire Imperial Food Pantry Refrigerator-Freezers.

Models include: CIV-143 and CIV-115.
Refrigerators/Freezers
Published by:
Frigidaire
1955 48 50mb $12.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download Consumer Bulletin - May 1959
Consumer Bulletin magazine was a product rating company that was started in 1928.

This issue contains full descriptions/story, ratings and charts for 1959 Automatic Washers. Brands rated include:
Easy Golden Regent,
Frigidaire Fabric-Master Custom Imperial,
General Electric Filter-Flo,
Hamilton,
Hotpoint,
Kelvinator,
Push Button Lady Kenmore,
Kenmore 800,
Maytag,
Norge Dispensomat,
Philco-Bendix Automagic,
RCA Whirlpool Imperial Mark II,
Speed Queen,
Westinghouse Laundromat.


Other ratings include Small pleasure boats, Nursing bottles and nipples, Control of the common mole, Greater safety in the use of power lawn mowers, Tubeless tires: are they suitable and safe for recapping?, 1959 Cadillac 62, 1959 Mercury, 1959 Pontiac, Hood ornaments still impaling adults and children.
Miscellaneous
Published by:
Consumer Bulletin
1959 40 32mb $8.99

Review Selections & Checkout          --          Continue Browsing the Library

For license and copyright information related to these materials please click here.

Please note that all publications presented here at Automatic Ephemera are on average between 35 and 85 years old. This information is presented as a educational/historical reference on vintage products of the past. Any trademarks or brand names appearing on this site are for nominative use to accurately describe the content contained in these publications. The associated trademarks are the sole property of their registered owners as there is no affiliation between Automatic Ephemera and these companies. No connection to or endorsement by the trademark owners is to be construed.