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1965 Philco Clothes Dryer Brochures


Published by Philco in 1965-- Here are some wonderful brochures for the entire 1965 line of Philco electric automatic clothes dryers. 1965 was the introduction of Philco's color-key push button controls.

Models include:
DE-6F8, DE-6F4, DE-6F3, DE-6F2,

Number of Pages: 10
File Size: 36mb
Download Fee: $8.99

  Add 1965 Philco Clothes Dryer Brochures to cart
Please note that all publications presented here at Automatic Ephemera are on average between 35 and 85 years old. This information is presented as a educational/historical reference on vintage products of the past. Any trademarks or brand names appearing on this site are for nominative use to accurately describe the content contained in these publications. The associated trademarks are the sole property of their registered owners as there is no affiliation between Automatic Ephemera and these companies. No connection to or endorsement by the trademark owners is to be construed.


Review Selections & Checkout

Here are the 25 most recent documents added to the library...
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Thumbnail Image of Download Maytag Washer Model 142B-142SB Owners Manual
Here is a rare owners manual on the first major center-dial Maytag automatic washer. Models include both 142B and 142SB (suds saver model).


Automatic Washers
Published by:
Maytag
1958 26 8mb $11.99
Introductory Price of $3.99


ends in:
4 days
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Thumbnail Image of Download 1990 Maytag Washers and Dryers Brochure
Beautiful brochure highlighting the 2nd to last generation of helical drive Newton made Maytag laundry appliances.

Models include:
washers: A9800, A9700, A9400, A9200, A7800, A7500, A7300.

dryers: D9900, D9800, D7600, D7500, D7400, D4000.
Automatic Washers & Dryers
Published by:
Maytag
1990 16 32mb $14.99
Introductory Price of $3.99


ends in:
4 days
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Thumbnail Image of Download 1970 Maytag Dishwasher Brochure
Very fun brochure highligting the Maytag top-of-the line dishwasher of the early 1970s.


Dishwashers
Published by:
Maytag
1970 6 29mb $8.99
Introductory Price of $3.99


ends in:
4 days
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Thumbnail Image of Download 1965 Westinghouse Top-Loading Washer Brochures
Here are brochures produced right after the switch-over to Westinghouse's own design of top-loading automatic washers.

Models include: LAF200, LAF400 and LAF600. Dryers are also shown: DTF200, DTF400/DGF400 and DTF600/DGF600
Automatic Washers
Published by:
Westinghouse
1965 12 53mb $8.99
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Thumbnail Image of Download 1954 Whirlpool Home Laundry Appliances Book
Here is an absolute beautifully illustrated catalog in book form from Whirlpool highlighting their 1954 line of home laundry appliances.

Products include automatic washers, dryers, wringer washers and mangle ironer.

Scanned at 600ddpi high resolution for a beautiful pdf file.
Automatic Washers & Dryers
Published by:
Whirlpool
1954 52 171mb $14.99
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Thumbnail Image of Download Early Kenmore Dishwasher Owners Manual
I'm guessing this book is from around 1956. This is probably the first front-loading home dishwasher ever marketed by Kenmore. It's made by D&M. The dishwasher in the earlier Sears catalogs was marketed under the name Homart as a top-loading machine.

Full operating instructions, cycle chart, installation instructions and parts list included.
Dishwashers
Published by:
Kenmore
1956 36 40mb $12.99
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Thumbnail Image of Download 1972 Dexter Commercial Washer Service Manual
Here is a look at the Philco-Bendix made Dexter Double-Load front loading commercial washer. What is interesting about this machine is it was designed with an overflow hose designed to overflow away suds about the 1/2 way mark of the window!

Full service manual including specifications, troubleshooting and service procedures.
Automatic Washers
Published by:
Dexter
1972 72 31mb $14.99
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Thumbnail Image of Download 1954 Hamilton Gas Dryer Service Manual
Complete service manual to Hamilton gas dryer model 360G.

Sections include: General, Installation, Exhaust system, Cabinet Panels, Controls, Gas Parts, Drum and Transmission, Troubleshooting, Service Agencies.
Clothes Dryers
Published by:
Hamilton
1954 54 67mb $14.99
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Thumbnail Image of Download 1969 Tupperware Catalog
Here is a fastinating look at Tupperware products available in the late 1960s.


Miscellaneous Housewares
Published by:
Tupperware
1969 48 82mb $12.99
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Thumbnail Image of Download 1976 Kenmore Washer Service Manual
Retail generic service manual covering all Kenmore washers both full size and portable models. Sections include:

Predelivery Requirements
Installation Procedure
Moving Preparations

Component Description & Service Procedures:
Water System
Mechanical System
Electrical System
Cycle of Operation
Compact Washers
Troubleshooting Charts
Wiring Terminal Designation
Wiring Diagrams and how to read them
Lubrication Instructions
Sample Parts List
Automatic Washers
Published by:
Kenmore
1976 84 93mb $14.99
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Thumbnail Image of Download Classroom Textbook on Servicing Electric Ranges
Originally written in 1963 and updated in 1972 these were classroom textbooks for learning how to repair electrical appliances. A fascinating look at how appliance repair was taught and a great primer to learn how to repair vintage electric ranges.


Ranges/Stoves
Published by:
NRI
1972 68 109mb $14.99
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Thumbnail Image of Download Facts About Your New Mixer
Full owners manual and use/care guide to all triple-beat GE stand mixers from the 1950's.


Small Appliances
Published by:
General Electric
1955 48 23mb $11.99
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Thumbnail Image of Download 1964-1969 Whirlpool Dishwasher Service Manual
Here is the comprehensive service manual to all Whirlpool made dishwashers from 1964-1969.

Full specifications and historical design changes for each model, complete troubleshooting, service procedure information and wiring schematics.

Models include: SLU-70, SLU-76, SLU-80, SLU-82, SLU-90, SCL-95, SLC-100, SLC-200, SLC-300, SPU-68, SPU-70, SPU-80, SPU-90, SPC-100, SPC-200, SPC-300, SRC-60, SCR-70, SRC-80, SRC-90, SRU-60, SRU-70, SRU-80, SRU-85, SRU-90, SSU-70, SSU-80, SSU-85, SSU-90, SSU-100, SSF-60, SSF-70, SSF-80, SSF-90, SSF-100, STU-70, STU-80, STU-90, STU-100, STF-60, STF-70, STF-80, STF-90, STF-100
Dishwashers
Published by:
Whirlpool
1969 155 192mb $14.99
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Thumbnail Image of Download 1947 General Electric Ranges Owners Manual
Here is the complete owner's manual and use/care guide to all 1947 General Electric freestanding electric ranges.

Models included:
Stratoliner: DDI-47
Airliner: CDI-47
Leader: CTI-47
Ranges/Stoves
Published by:
General Electric
1947 56 74mb $12.99
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Thumbnail Image of Download How to Use Your Cuisinart Food Processor
Complete owner's manual to one of the earliest Cuisinart Food Processers ever produced. Model CFP-5A which ran from 1973-1976. Manual includes suggested recipes at end.


Small Appliances
Published by:
Cuisinart
1973 68 42mb $11.99
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Thumbnail Image of Download 1961 General Electric Commercial Washer and Dryer Service Manual
Here is the service manual for the newly redesigned perforated tub commercial washers from GE. GE commercial dryers are also highlighted in part 2 of the manual.

Models include:
WC470V, WC472V, WC474V, WC475V, & WC477V WASHERS
MODEL DC380V & DC382V DRYERS
Automatic Washers & Dryers
Published by:
General Electric
1961 60 78mb $12.99
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Thumbnail Image of Download 1974 Westinghouse Tumbler Washer and Dryer Use and Care Guides
Complete use and care guide to front loading Westinghouse washer model: LT100P and dryer: DE100P (electric)/ DG100P (gas)


Automatic Washers & Dryers
Published by:
Westinghouse
1974 8 9mb $11.99
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Thumbnail Image of Download 1961 General Electric Built-in Cooking Appliances Users Manual
Here is the owners manual and use/care guide to GE built-in ovens and cooktops from the early 1960's. Models include:

J820, J822, J824, J620, J630, J624, J634, J802, J902, J904, J900, J810, J812, J814, J880, J882, J884, J850, J852, J854

J710, J720, J750, J730, J780, J810, J820, J850, J880, J900, J620, J630, J712, J722, J752, J732, J782, J812, J822, J852, J882, J902, J624, J634, J714, J724, J754, J784, J802, J814, J824, J854, J884, J904
Ranges/Stoves
Published by:
General Electric
1961 36 44mb $12.99
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Thumbnail Image of Download 1957-1965 Kenmore Combination Washer-Dryer Service Manual
Here is the comprehensive service manual to all Sears Kenmore Combination Washer/Dryers from 1957 to 1965. Both 30" and 27" machines are highlighted.

Highlighted Models include: 110.57105100, 110.5710700, 110.5810100, 110.5810500, 110.5809500, 110.5810800, 110.5809800, 110.5810950, 110.5809950, 110.5810100, 110.5910500, 110.5909500, 110.5910900, 110.5910950, 110.5909900, 110.5909950, 110.6110800, 110.6109800, 110.6309800, 110.6310800, 110.6509900, 110.6510900, 110.6110800-801~802, 110.6109800-801-802, 110.6109500, 110.6110500, 110.6109100, 110.6110100. Other models numbers not specifically listed above from 1957-1965 range are also included/valid in this manual.
Combination Washer/Dryers
Published by:
Kenmore
1965 0 165mb $14.99
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Thumbnail Image of Download KitchenAid 15 Series Top Loading Portable Dishwasher Owners Manual
Here is the complete owners manual and operating instruction for all 15 series top loading KitchenAid portable dishwashers.

Models include:
variCycle: KD-5, KDA-5, KDW-5,
Electra: KDY-5, KDE-5, KDC-5.
Dishwashers
Published by:
KitchenAid
1964 16 $11.99
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Thumbnail Image of Download 1937 Westinghouse Worlds Fair Dishwasher Parts Catalog
Here is a fascinating document showing the first two dishwashers Westinghouse dishwashers ever. This includes the very first front loading home dishwasher. The front loading machine was demonstrated heavily at 1939-1940 World's Fair in NYC. This document is an important piece of appliance history.


Dishwashers
Published by:
Westinghouse
1937 12 18mb $12.99
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Thumbnail Image of Download The Inside Story of the Tumbler Washer
Here is an issue of the Westinghouse Service Beacon that highlights the internal workings of the Westinghouse 3-Belt automatic washer. It covers in depth how exactly the washer drives both tumble wash and spin as well as adjustments to make to keep the washer running properly.


Automatic Washers
Published by:
Westinghouse
1972 12 16mb $12.99
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Thumbnail Image of Download Westinghouse Appliances For Home Planning
Here is a sales literature brochure highlighting the 1959 line of Westinghouse Appliances for the home. Products include:

Refrigerators Freezers
Built-in Ovens and Cooktops
Freestanding Ranges
Dishwashers
Disposers
Laundry Twins
Automatic Washers and Dryers
Combination Washer/Dryer
Air-Conditioners
Metal and Wood Westinghouse Cabinets
Full Catalog
Published by:
Westinghouse
1959 16 49mb $9.99
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Thumbnail Image of Download 1980 Frigidaire Parts and Accessory Catalog
This is the last Parts catalog produced by General Motors/Frigidaire before the Frigidaire division was sold off to WCI in 1980. This has the final replacement part numbers for GM/Frigidaire parts as some of the earlier part numbers were consolidated into updated replacement part numbers. It is the complete parts listings of all major serviceable parts for all post-war Frigidaire Major Appliances through 1979. Full listings of major parts and their part number is included.

Ranges 1946-1979
Refrigerators 1946-1979
Washers 1947-1979 (including 1-18 and Laundry Center models)
Dryers 1952-1979
Dishwashers 1955-1979
Air Conditioners 1947-1979

Plus accessories for all appliances.

Having the manufacturers part number for the part you need is essential for doing internet/eBay searches to locate these rare, no longer available parts. In many circumstances they can be found once you know the part number. This guide is essential for anyone who has any vintage Frigidaire appliance.
Full Catalog
Published by:
Frigidaire
1980 228 177mb $14.99
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Thumbnail Image of Download 1957 Maytag Highlander Washer Service Manual
Here is the very first service manual Maytag produced when they introduced their newly designed Helical-Drive washer. Models include: 123, 123S. Supplements at end introduce models 131, 131S, 141 and 141S.


Automatic Washers
Published by:
Maytag
1957 74 105mb $12.99

25 Random Items from the Library
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Thumbnail Image of Download 1959 Frigidaire Tech-Tips Bulletins
Here is the completed collection of all 1959 Frigidaire Tech-Tips bulletins alerting of product, parts and service changes mid-model year. Also included is one 1957 and one 1958 year bulletin.


Automatic Washers & Dryers
Published by:
Frigidaire
1959 88 57mb $12.99
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Thumbnail Image of Download 1976 Frigidaire Dishwashers Brochures
Here are some beautiful brochures highlighting the 1976 line of Frigidaire Automatic Dishwashers, both undercounter and mobile/portable.

Full images and specifications included. Models include: D-UD, D-UCD, D-UI, D-UCI, D-MCD, D_MI, D_MCI.
Dishwashers
Published by:
Frigidaire
1976 8 7mb $8.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download Hotpoint Electric Range Brochures
Hotpoint electric range brochures from the 1950 and 1951 lines. Images and full specs on each.


Ranges/Stoves
Published by:
Hotpoint
1951 12 15mb $8.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download 1956 Hotpoint Refrigerator-Freezer Owners Manual
The complete owners manual/use and care guide to all 1956 Hotpoint Refrigerator-Freezers.


Refrigerators/Freezers
Published by:
Hotpoint
1956 68 74mb $12.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download New Easy Spindrier
Three beautiful brochures highlighting the 1957 Easy Spin-Drier line.


Twin Tub Washers
Published by:
Easy
1957 6 7mb $8.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download 1954-1955 Norge Automatic Washer Owners Manual
Here is the complete owners manual and operating instructions to the '54 and '55 line of Norge automatic washers.

Models include: AW-450, AW-452, AW-420, AW-410, AW-405 and AW-423.
Automatic Washers
Published by:
Norge
1954 33 23mb $11.99
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Thumbnail Image of Download 1961 Philco Duomatic Combination Washer-Dryer Brochures
Here is the complete line of 1961 Philco Duomatic combination washer-dryers. Models include: C-716 (Left over design from 1960 models), C-714, C-712, C-710.


Combination Washer/Dryers
Published by:
Philco
1961 10 11mb $8.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download Assorted Small Appliances Dealer Catalog
Great brochures from a dealer catalog of small appliances and clocks.

Products Include:

Hamilton Beach Mixer

Hamilton Beach Mixette hand Mixer

Wearing Blendors: Deluxe, Chrome, Standard, Duo-Speed and Hand Mixer

Cory Vacuum Coffee Maker, Cory Electric Knife Shapener

Toastmaster Super Deluxe Toaster and Toaster 1B14

Fryrette Deep Fryer

Robeson Percolator Coffee Makers Crown, Princess, Avalon and Copper Classic Models

Durabilt Traveling Irons

Westclox Moonbeam Electric Alarm Clock, Sphnix, Big Ben, Greenwich, Logan, Electric Switch and Bantam Desk Clocks, Melody, Belfast, Orb and Monitor Commercial Electric Wall Clocks.

Lux Swinging Bird, Bobbing Bird, Colorful Clown and Rudolph Red Nose Clocks, Lux Minute-Minder Timers, Lux Claridge, Harvester, Chilton, Spinning Wheel, Fairview and Grist Mill Clocks

Seth Thomas Clocks, Rudder, Glance, Cathay, Belwyn, Accent, Poise, Sharon, Lynton, Filedston, Dynaire, Buckingham, Baxter, Northbury, Legacy, Kenbury, Medbury, Brookfield, Pippin, Homestead, Plaza, Manager clocks.

Arvin Portable Electric Heaters
Small Appliances
Published by:
Generic Catalog
1954 32 81mb $8.99
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Thumbnail Image of Download 1960 Frigidaire 40 Inch Electric Range Owners Manual
Here is the complete owners manual and operating instructions to all 1960 40" Frigidaire electric ranges.

Models include: RCI-75-60, RI-55-60, RCD-71-60, RS-10-60, RD-20-60 and RDD-20-60.

Sections include: Control Panel Information, About Surface Cooking, About Oven Cooking, Cleaning and Care, Pull 'N Clean Oven, Special Instructions, Accessories about your Range, If You Need Service, etc.
Ranges/Stoves
Published by:
Frigidaire
1960 40 49mb $12.99
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Thumbnail Image of Download 1972 Frigidaire Dishwasher T-Line Tech-Talk Service Manual
Here is the full Tech-Talk service manual for all 1972 Frigidaire under-counter and portable dishwashers made by General Motors.

Models include:
DW-CDMT, DW-IMT, DW-CIMT, DW-DUT, DW-CDUT, DW-IUT, DW-CIUT

Specifications, Cycle charts and full servicing information included.
Dishwashers
Published by:
Frigidaire
1972 71 51mb $12.99
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Thumbnail Image of Download Frigidaire Electric Ranges for Carefree Cooking - 1940
Frigidaire produced their first electric range in 1938. This rare brochure highlights Frigidaire's thired year of producing electric ranges with beautiful illustrations and full feature descriptions and specifications. Models include: B-70, B-30, B-20, L-10, BC-5, BC-6 and A-6.

"If you only knew the change that has come over my meals! Everything I serve has that delightful flavor I've been working for ever since I started cooking. Frigidaire's modern electric cooking just doesn't include the word "failure." Delicious roasts, pies, puddings and cakes are so easy to get "just right" ... because the "Even-Heat" oven, with twin heating units and automatic controls, does all the work."
Ranges/Stoves
Published by:
Frigidaire
1939 16 18mb $8.99
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Thumbnail Image of Download Meet Your New GE Washer
Operating instruction guide to GE Washer Model WA754W and WA756W.


Automatic Washers
Published by:
General Electric
1962 2 1mb $11.99
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Thumbnail Image of Download 1980 General Electric Air Conditioners Brochure
Here is a sales brochure highlighting the entire line of 1980 GE Air Conditioners. Full detailed specifications included for each model.

Appliances highlighted:

Terminal Air Conditioners
Built-in Air Conditioners
Window Air-Conditioners
Air Conditioners
Published by:
General Electric
1980 6 8mb $8.99
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Thumbnail Image of Download Maytag Combination Washer-Dryer Brochures
Brochures highling both the gas and electric models of Maytag's combination washer-dryer. Beautiful illustrations and full specifications for each machine included.


Combination Washer/Dryers
Published by:
Maytag
1962 4 5mb $8.99
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Thumbnail Image of Download 1961 General Electric Commercial Washer and Dryer Service Manual
Here is the service manual for the newly redesigned perforated tub commercial washers from GE. GE commercial dryers are also highlighted in part 2 of the manual.

Models include:
WC470V, WC472V, WC474V, WC475V, & WC477V WASHERS
MODEL DC380V & DC382V DRYERS
Automatic Washers & Dryers
Published by:
General Electric
1961 60 78mb $12.99
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Thumbnail Image of Download America's most beautiful vacuum cleaner... packed with purse opening features
Salesman brochure highlighting all the wonderful features of Cadillac vacuum cleaners. "Nationally advertised to Mrs. America".


Vacuum Cleaners
Published by:
Cadillac
1955 4 4mb $8.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download Never In All Your Washdays Have You Seen Anything to Match the New ABC-O-Matic
Whimsical sales brochure from ABC highlighting their new automatic washer, the model 50.


Automatic Washers
Published by:
ABC-O-Matic
1950 4 4mb $8.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download So Nice To Your Things
Owners Manual to Maytag All-Fabric Washer Models A700 and A700S (suds saver model).


Automatic Washers
Published by:
Maytag
1961 22 7mb $11.99
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Thumbnail Image of Download Electrical Merchandising Magazine - October 1957
Electrical Merchandising is a fun magazine to read for any collector or enthusiast of vintage appliances, electronics and other vintage home products. This highly entertaining magazine covered the retail sales and merchandising areas of Major Appliances, Small Appliances, Small Electrics, Radios, Televisions and other electric home products from the mid-20th century. This was the Life and Look Magazine of the appliance world, in the same large size 10x13 format.

Index of the October 1957 Issue



Trade Publications
Published by:
Electrical Merchandising
1957 230 178mb $12.99
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Thumbnail Image of Download Kenmore's Very First Automatic Washer
This is one of my favorites. It is a Brochure available in Sears stores when they introduced their first automatic washer, in the late 1940's, produced of course by Whirlpool. The machine had no suspension system so it was necessary to bolt it to the floor or to a concrete block.

Also included is the complete owners manual and operating instruction to this machine.
Automatic Washers
Published by:
Kenmore
1948 26 14mb $11.99
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Thumbnail Image of Download 1964 JCPenny Portable Dishwasher Service Manual
Here is the complete service manual to all 1963 and 1964 JCPenny Mobile-Maid style Portable Dishwashers.

Sections include: Specifications, Customer Education and Dishwasher Operation, Component Servicing, Dishwasher Service Analysis and Wiring Diagrams.

Models include:
862-1100-30-080
862-1200-30-080
862-4110-40-080
862-4120-40-080
Dishwashers
Published by:
JCPenny
1964 32 17mb $12.99
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Thumbnail Image of Download Service manual to the Westinghouse Combination Washer-Dryer WD-3
Here is the complete service manual for Westinghouse's third combo model, the WD-3 referred to as the "Wash 'n Dry Laundromat".

Sections include: Specifications and parts, installation, cycle of operation, electrical diagrams and charts, troubleshooting, thermostat checks, three-way mix and fill valve and parts replacement.
Combination Washer/Dryers
Published by:
Westinghouse
1957 36 13mb $12.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download 1960 Blackstone Automatic Washer Service Manual
Service manual to Blackstone Automatic washers models: WAA50, WAA60, WAC45, WAC55, WAC65 and WAC75.

Service manual claims this particular transmission design spins the tub at 680rpm which is one the better water extracting washers of the time.
Automatic Washers
Published by:
Blackstone
1960 23 17mb $12.99
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Thumbnail Image of Download 1938-1945 Frigidaire Electric Range Service Manual
Complete Service Manual including wiring diagrams for the earliest of the GM Frigidaire Electric Ranges. 1938-1945 Models.

Models include: L-20, B-20, B-60, L-40, B-40, A-5, L-10-39, B-20-39, B-30-39, B-40-39, B-60-39, A-6, BC-5, BC-6, L-10-40, B-15-40, B-20-40, B-30-40, B-40-40, B-60-40, B-70-40, A-6, B-10-41, BC-5, B-15-41, BC-6, B-35-41, B-45-41, B-60-41, B-70-41, B-17, B-17 LL.

If you are looking for the parts catalog to these models, please check this document:
1942-1952 Frigidaire Parts Catalog
Ranges/Stoves
Published by:
Frigidaire
1952 107 114mb $14.99
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Thumbnail Image of Download The GE Review
The GE Review was an engineering magazine created to report on the advances of technology of the time, including advances in Home Appliances.

Articles in July 1952 issue...


Editorial: The Fourth of July

New Switchgear Laboratory Goes into Operation
Late last month on the flatlands of southwest Philadelphia, GE’s new high-capacity switchgear development laboratory was officially dedicated. With Company spokesmen looking ahead to an annual U.S. power consumption of possibly a trillion kw-hrs by 1965—more than triple the amount now being used—the new laboratory will aid in the development of switch- gear of higher ratings to keep pace with this phenomenal growth. continued…

Engineering the Automatic Washer
The automatic clothes washer is a simple device—to the housewife. She throws in the laundry, sets a control dial, and goes about her telephoning. A short time later she removes the laundry—washed and damp-dried.

Simply stated, the function of a domestic washing machine is to get the laundry clean, rinse out the detergent, and extract most of the water. For a third of the century these operations were performed with a machine in which the laundry was manually lifted from the tub and fed through a water- extraction device. Most of these devices were wringers, powered by the washing- machine motor. A limited number were the centrifugal-extraction type using the same or a separate tub. continued…

Stopping Ships
Even with modern navigating and communication aids there are times when things get out of hand and a collision ol ships appears imminent. The need for meeting this situation—rare though it may he—has an influence on the design of ships’ power plants.

Most large and fast ships are powered bv a steam turbine that drives the propeller through suitable gearing and shafting. The astern power that is used for stopping a ship is provided by a comparatively small separate section of the main turbine. The question immediately arises as to why the astern element can’t be given the same power as the ahead element. Well, it can. The simplest arrangement would he another turbine of the same size geared to drive the propeller backwards. continued…

Ferromagnetography
Contrary to general belief printing did not originate with Gutenberg; to the ancient Chinese belongs the credit. They made engravings—used mainly for printing on silk cloth—by carving figures out of wooden blocks. Later, around 1120 BC. they introduced wooden blocks of movable type.

Modern printing, on the other hand, began in the middle ages—about the year 1423. It was during this period that Johann Gutenberg, a German stonemason, had the idea of printing with movable type. So he set about his skill, cutting alphabets out of small wooden blocks to be used for typesetting. A friend advised him to use metal instead of wood, since it wouldn’t wear out so easily. This he did. As you can imagine, this task required many years and a large expenditure of money. He financed his operations by borrowing money on the type he’d already completed. Then, to prove to his creditors and the many cynics the worth of his efforts, he completely reproduced the Bible in print. continued…

Cool Breezes — Story of the Electric Fan
Fans preceded written history by many centuries. Some of the most ancient known fans were those of the Chinese dating back to 3000 BC. And ceremonial fans were used in 1700 BC by the reigning monarchs of Egypt and Assyria. Some thousand years later the "punkah" —a hand-swung lightweight ceiling-suspended fan—was introduced in India, and even today is still in use there.

From exquisitely made folding tans of the Japanese, followed by 17th century Paris creations of surpassing beauty, we come to the practical palm-leaf type and simpler folding fans of grandmother’s day.

It’s not possible to give the exact age of the electric fan—the youngest member of the ancient family of fans. But the earliest record of a U.S. patent awarded for an electric fan was in 1854. This was a ceiling-suspended assembly of several large fan blades, each hinged along one edge to a horizontal rotating arm driven by a battery-operated motor. Arms on the blades struck projections causing the blades to vibrate and thus agitate the air. continued…

Longer Life for Dry-type Transformers
Improvements in dry-type power transformers and their insulations is a good example of how electrical engineers are continually making progress in lengthening the life span of electric equipment and increasing its endurance to higher temperatures.

For many years insulations known as Class A were about the only ones available to the transformer designer. These insulations consisted of materials such as cotton, silk, or paper—impregnated with organic varnishes to give them additional mechanical and electrical strength. They were used in a medium of mineral oil or air. Such insulations were relatively inexpensive but a maximum allowable temperature limit of 105 C was necessary for reasonable life. continued…

The G10 Germanium Rectifier
In 1886 a German chemist by the name of Alexander Winkler found an unknown metal sulfide and isolated the element which he called germanium. It has a shiny metallic appearance, is extremely hard and brittle, and is recovered as a by-product in the smelting and refining of zinc ores.

Because germanium falls into group four of the periodic table, it has some of the chemical characteristics of the elements on either side of it. Germanium is both an electrical conductor and an electrical insulator, depending on its temperature, and is classed as a semiconductor. continued…

Nylon for Bearings and Gears
Although nylon is generally associated with such decorative items as stockings and sweaters, we have found that its versatility extends well into the fields of bearings, gears, and other workaday applications.
Nylon is tough at low7 temperatures, is resistant to abrasion, has strength in thin sections, is light in weight, has certain self-lubricating qualities, and is resistant to many chemicals. Properties are given in the table on the opposite page. Exact characteristics and specifications can be found in the literature put out by the manufacturers of nylon molding powders.

Bearing Tests - Of interest to design engineers is published data that shows the effect of wear on nylon when used as a bearing material. Results of tests using nylon against nylon, steel, and brass under various loads and speeds, and with various lubricants, are given on page 35. As you may suspect, the lowest rates of wear are found when nylon is run against nylon in a dry condition, as well as when nylon is run against steel lubricated with SAE 10 oil. When nylon is rubbed against brass, the metal flakes off and contaminates the hearing surface. continued…

The Unit Cost of Light
There’s more to figuring the cost of a lighting system than adding up the prices of fixtures, installation, and electricity. A tabulation of over-all annual costs that the customer may expect to pay appeals to the businessman, because it is expressed in his own language. Rut further analytical cost studies of operating and maintenance methods and lamp efficiencies may show you the way to worth-while savings or better lighting for the same expenditure.

To help you along this economic pathway a relatively simple formula has been devised. It is referred to as the "unit cost of light” method. In its most flexible form it deals with the raw light as generated by the lamps in just one fixture. Then, once the unit cost of light in dollars per million lumen hours is known, you can easily apply it to a specific installation if over-all costs are also desired. continued…

Added Kick for Turbojet Engines
Getting an 80-ton airplane into the air in a matter of seconds is no easy job. The problem is one of providing more than normal maximum thrust or "kick” at take-off. In the case of B-45 and B-47 jet bombers, their power plants (J-47 turbojet engines—one is shown on the adjacent page) were equipped with combustion-chamber water-alcohol injection systems for augmenting thrust.

Variations of these systems boost the take-off thrust from 15 to 25 percent or higher. As a result, heavy jet-powered aircraft can take off from minimum- length runways with maximum safety. continued…

Are We Ready for Railroad Electrification in the U. S.? .
Admittedly, widespread electrification in I lie United States is not just around the corner. Rut there is an element in the cost of railroad electrification and in the success of operation through the ensuing years that can not be settled too soon. This all-important factor is standardization. And standardization is so important primarily because it permits repetitive manufacture. Standardization, of course, offers other advantages that may be more familiar, but every day brings new evidence that a custom-designed article built in a job shop cannot compete with a highly engineered item produced under conditions of repetitive manufacture.

It is time for all who may have a hand in railroad electrification in the United States to start sifting out the alternatives and to find agreement on what may be the standard system of electrification in this country. Let us speak briefly about the prospects of electrification and [hen expand the theme of standardization. continued…

A Brightening Outlook - When will we see railroad electrification resumed in the United States? The answer depends largely on costs, with the cost of fuel or energy being a big part of the expense of locomotive operation.

When we compare the cost of diesel fuel with the cost of purchased electric power at the figures current today, we find them roughly equivalent. We are speaking, of course, of gallons of fuel oil or kilowatt-hours of electricity at the locomotive. As long as power costs in these two forms are even approximately equal, it is obvious that the diesel- electric locomotive with its lower investment is the correct answer for new installations. At the same time this approximate equality tells us that extensive electrified systems already installed should continue to be operated. continued…

New Safeguard for Protective Coatings
You can best define a plastics material as a synthetic organic substance. At some stage of production it’s plastic— capable of being shaped; or liquid— capable of being cast. Furthermore, it’s either thermoplastic or thermosetting. If thermoplastic, it softens under heat and can he remolded. If thermosetting, it sets under heat and can’t be remolded.

Phenolic materials are thermosetting plastics. And from practically the outset of the industry they’ve enjoyed an ever- expanding market. They take many and various forms. Probably the most familiar to you are radio cabinets, telephone handsets, buttons, tube bases, mechanical parts, and so on. continued…

Dollar-sign Engineering
The photo sequence beginning on the next page will show you how a value analyst operates—step by step—on a typical project. Here, it’s the timer for the automatic clothes washer. Because space doesn't permit us to show the results of the analysis on every part of the timer, we have selected one part as being typical. (In the actual project more than 30 individual parts of the timer were analyzed for value.)

It should be emphasized that nothing was wrong with the timer when we approached the Value Analysis Unit and requested a survey. The timer operated satisfactorily and costs were in line with similar products. But. as is the case with far-sighted management, they wanted to see if it wasn’t possible to further eliminate any unnecessary costs. continued…

Moisture vs Rubber Insulation
Although rubber compounds are used to waterproof such everyday items as overshoes, raincoats, and garden hoses, rubber compounds in general can’t be considered waterproof when used as an insulation for wire and cable.

What works on raincoats may not work on cables—the basic differences are: length of exposure; effect of moisture on the electrical properties. Cables insulated with rubber compounds must withstand years of continual exposure with a consequent absorption of moisture. And moisture absorption has proved to be a contributing factor in cable failures. continued…
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