Your Recent Purchases
Contact Us
Welcome to Automatic Ephemera, an independent organization/library for historical research and education, sharing public domain documents relating to vintage products.


Please search through our database, we have hundreds of available documents...

Search Publisher: 
   Restrict to Product: 

Full Text Search of Automatic Ephemera:   

Clear and Start New Search

Review Selections & Checkout

How to Have a Prettier Room

Published by Johnson-Wax in 1958-- Here is an absolutely adorable high-school home economics flyer discussing all kinds of ways to make a girls room more lovely. Wonderful text and full of whimsical 1950's style illustrations!

Number of Pages: 16
File Size: 7mb
Download Fee: $8.99

  Add How to Have a Prettier Room to cart
Please note that all publications presented here at Automatic Ephemera are on average between 35 and 85 years old. This information is presented as a educational/historical reference on vintage products of the past. Any trademarks or brand names appearing on this site are for nominative use to accurately describe the content contained in these publications. The associated trademarks are the sole property of their registered owners as there is no affiliation between Automatic Ephemera and these companies. No connection to or endorsement by the trademark owners is to be construed.

Review Selections & Checkout

Here is an automated summary of some of the text contained in:
How to Have a Prettier Room
Published in 1958

Important: Please note the summary text below was created by electronically reading the scanned images with optical character recognition software (ocr). OCR technolgoy is not yet perfected and you might see some spelling and formatting errors in the preview text below. These errors are not actually in the final product, the download file you will receive is a pure clean high-resolution scan of the original document, containing all text, graphics and photos exactly as originally printed.
Page 1:


Page 2:


Fixing a room a new way is one of the oldest feminine that probably began when a prehistoric female rearranged the animal skins in her cave for better effect.

If you yearn to do something to make your bedroom prettier, but just don't know where to begin, here's a bit of advice: Begin with a plan. First:





A smart girl plans her room according to her personality, for she knows she'll be happiest in a room which best expresses herself. The little quizzes on pages 3, 6, 9 and 12 will help you determine your own type. Then look for the decorating tips that appeal to you.



Cheer up, chick. The ideas in this book were planned for young budgets. Besides, your biggest asset is one which has no price at all because it's priceless- your ingenuity.

Once you start using that, ideas for earning money will come to you. Like this: Suppose you need some cash to buy a quart of paint. Bargain with Mom- you wax the furniture; she buys the paint for your room.

Bargain with Dad, too. If you need his help in building bookshelves, do a job for him like waxing his car.

Are you clever at making something people will buy? Could you help a neighbor by doing the dishes after a party? Or perhaps clean her Venetian blinds? (There's a free booklet on a cleaning wax that makes this job a snap, too.)
Page 3:

Artistic Type?

you are, if...

your first love is music or writing or designing or such...and you're dreaming of a career in your field

you like full skirts and interesting thong sandals

you've a love of color and know it can work miracles

you can easily imagine yourself someday studying in Paris or Rome

you've lots of ideas but most of them aren't practical

Here are some practical ideas for a very individual room which has been planned around a talent. A budding young dress designer has used a dress form as the focal point in a studio-bedroom. Tools of her trade (scissors, pin cushion, sewing basket) are hung from molding with long ribbons. Fake flowers stick out of the neck of the dress form, and the body is used as a bulletin board. Decorate the fabric covering with textile paint or tint it a gay color.
Page 4:


display your talent with a music stand, a straight chair and your instrument (if it's not a piano) out where everybody can see where your interests lie. Enamel stand and chair a pastel or bold color, and wax for extra beauty. This is what designers call "setting a mood"-you've seen it done in movies and window displays.


by removing headboard and footboard from an old single bed. Cover with a bright felt bedspread. To make spread, measure length of bed plus height from floor at head and foot. Buy 72"-wide felt in the length you need. No hemming-just pink edges or trim straight. Make extra throw-pillows from old bath towels. Fold to size and thickness you want and cover with felt.


Put a gay, ruffled skirt on it. Or paint all wooden parts some striking color to contrast with the black metal legs and foot treadle. Or enamel the entire machine the same color as your walls.


Show off your skill. Cut giant-sized quill or pen and pencil from cardboard or heavy paper. Paint an exciting color and tack or glue to the most prominent wall. Keep your typewriter waxed and shining...and out where it can be seen.
Page 5:


out of a popcorn or potato chip can. Paint or cover with fancy gift paper or wallpaper. Shellac paper to keep it clean; wax inside of can so dust and dirt won't stick. For an extra large wastebasket, use a semi-circular clothes hamper, shoved against the wall.


One clever girl made hers this way. She found an old two-drawer wooden file cabinet in a second-hand shop. First she refinished the sides, then bought a board the width of the cabinet and 50" long. Then she persuaded her brother to attach two painted metal legs to one end of the board (have metal pipe threaded at one end and screw into matching threaded socket rings attached underneath board). The other end of the board was nailed in place over the file cabinet, then finished to match the sides. Result: a long, handsome desk with really deep drawers.


old furniture and give unpainted pieces a professional look. Write us for a free copy of 3 Easy Recipes for Finishing Furniture. Tells you exactly how to do it, right down to the kind of brush to use.


or a night table from orange crates. Cover with the same paper you used on the wastebasket. Or paint a solid color and, when thoroughly dry, wax to keep it clean. If you use the giant quill design on your wall, you could repeat it on the side of the crate.
Page 6:

Romantic Type?

you are, if..............

- you love flowers and dreamy music and pretty, lacy handkerchiefs

- you weep over stories or movies with sad endings

- you've already planned your wedding down to the last detail

- you wear ribbons in your hair and love pinks and pale blues

- you keep a diary and save all kinds of mementos like valentines, menus and theater programs

If you decide you're the romantic type, you're in luck. You're the girl who'll find treasures in an attic-old Victorian pieces that look like horrors until you transform them with imagination and pastel paint. This room shows you one way to have the prettiest, most feminine boudoir imaginable.
Page 7:


Paint your old worn floor in a dark color. Let dry. Then spatter-paint over this in two light colors. To spatter: Dip your brush in paint lightly. Knock handle sharply against a broomstick. This will spatter paint from the brush onto the floor in a nicely irregular way. Do all of one color first. Let dry. Then do second color. When floor is thoroughly dry, wax with paste wax to preserve paint from wear. Keep clean and shining with a liquid cleaning and polishing wax. No scrubbing ever necessary!


Make tie-racks for full ruffled curtains with wide, wide ribbons and let the ends flutter to the floor. Tuck artificial flowers in the bow knot-be sure the color blends with the ribbons. Cut pictures of your favorite movie stars from magazines and paste them on the inside of your window shade. Then watch the stars come out when you pull down the shade at night!


Easiest way is still the favorite. Get two orange crates and smooth all rough edges with sandpaper. Stand on ends. Get a board or piece of plywood the same width as the ends of the crates. Saw it to the length you want and nail it across the crates. Paint inside and top a pretty pastel.
Page 8:

Make a ruffled skirt to match your curtains or bedspread. Thumb-tack in place. Easy way to shirr the skirt is with shirring tape you sew flat to the back of the material. It costs about 9$ a yard and has woven-in cords you pull to make ruffles. This tape is wonderful for dust ruffles on beds or chairs, too.

P.S. Be sure to give the top of your dressing table a coat of paste wax before you use it. This will protect the paint and make the surface easier to keep clean.


An old hat rack. Paint it white or a pastel color, wax it, and use as a wonderful display for your party favors, prettiest hats, an umbrella, a gay beach bag, scarves and ties.


of miniature animals or dishes, dollhouse furniture or other small objects is in a shadow box. Wax to cut down dusting; then hang over your desk or bed.


Cut two big hearts, same size, out of bright red cloth (felt, flannel, satin, etc.). Put a layer of cotton between and sew together like a big flat pin cushion. Quilting a satin heart will make it even more luscious.
Page 9:

Outdoor Type?

you are, if............

you spend every spare moment riding or playing tennis or sailing or hiking

you'd rather have a date with Rock Hudson than Cary Grant you prefer a co-ed weenie roast to an all-girl tea you like to feel the wind ruffling your hair you love the autumny smell of wood smoke and burning leaves

Bring the outdoors inside and use it as a background for your favorite sport or hobby. Have lots of plants, and prints of birds or animals. Use colors you'll find outdoors like greens and yellows and earthy tones-skip the pastels and ruffles.
Page 10:


"Plant" ivy in a couple of painted flower pots on the floor and twine up pipe to ceiling. Buy ivy at the dime store or make your own with untwisted wire coat hangers wrapped in green crepe paper. Use green construction paper for leaves; shellac if you want a shiny look. Make stems out of pipe cleaners dipped in green ink or a fabric tint. Glue leaves to one end, twist the other end to the wire.


Is tennis your sport? Make the most of it by painting crossed racquets on the wall. Trace your own-strings and all. Hang a mesh bag filled with balls underneath. And be sure your real racquet is stored in a press where it won't warp, and waxed for extra protection.


can be made out of a square of pegboard. Use colorful waxed golf tees to hold your memos in place. Decorate with school initials formed with pipe cleaners and thumb-tacked down. Tint them with fabric dye.


Fill a wicker creel with little potted plants. Or paint it a gay color and hang on the wall. Use it to hold Christmas or birthday cards.


or record holder out of bricks and boards. Paint bricks white to bring out their texture, and wax to keep clean. Have shelves as high and long as you want- paint and wax boards. Use matching bricks for book-ends. For a colorful touch in your bookcase, use road maps or pages from an old atlas to make covers for some of your books.
Page 11:


is yours with an old camp chest or an Army locker from a surplus store. Cover with denim, burlap or felt. Burlap gives a tweedy effect that is sensational. You can glue either fabric on with ordinary household cement. Before covering top, pad with foam rubber or an old chenille bedspread folded to a nice thickness. Put the chest at the foot of your bed and use for everything from skates and tennis shoes to out-ofseason clothes. For fun, make a monogram of felt in a contrasting color and glue to the front of the chest. Or cut narrow strips of felt and glue them in tic-tac-toe designs around the sides.


Fill in narrow wall space between windows or doors with a vertical row of your favorite pictures in identical frames, waxed for a smooth, expensive look. Or mount prints of enlarged outdoor snapshots on matching mats.


with an old bread box, enameled white and trimmed with stencils or decals. Use to hold paper, pencils and other supplies for homework. Keep some signs handy and put them around when you study: QUIET... WOMAN AT WORK...SILENCE...DO NOT DISTURB... KEEP OUT...STUDY ZONE.


Cover your old one with denim or some other fabric used in your room-zipped on so you can remove easily for washing. Or paint an ordinary pail white, trim with gay decals or sketches, monogram, and wind handle with crepe paper or ribbon. Add perky bows on each side where handle joins pail.
Page 12:


you are, if......

you like high heels better than flats laughter comes easily you're popular with both sexes you study with your radio on you'd rather dance than do anything else, almost

If you're a prom personality, you'll want your room to be one with lots of comfortable seating space for your girl friends. That means sit-on-the-floor pillows, bowls for popcorn and peanuts, storage space for record albums, a dressing table, and a place to keep all your party souvenirs. Here's how to do a lot with a little.
Page 13:


out of any old table, preferably one with a shallow drawer or two. If the top is scratched and worn, refinish it. Write for free folder, 3 Easy Recipes for Finishing furniture. The cute stool shown here is an old piano stool, with a fancy pillow top held on with elastic.


in a skirt made out of an old sheet tinted your favorite color. Trim edges with three bands of ric-rac or eyelet embroidery. Put matching ruffles around the edge of the mirror you'll hang over your dressing table-you can attach them with adhesive or cellophane tape.


is easy to make. Buy a plastic tackle box at the dime store or hardware store. Put household cement on the lid and cover with sequins or pearls tinted with regular textile dye. Or use colored beads or flat rhinestone buttons...or old coins which you've shined up with copper polish.


becomes a highly decorative accessory when you paint it, wax it, hang it from a velvet ribbon and fill it with fake flowers and trailing ivy. You could even put a lovely doll in the cage-one that is dressed in an especially pretty formal.


and magazine stand, scrounge about for a grocery store display rack made of wire. Very smart when enameled black for that wrought-iron look!
Page 14:


An orange crate, again. This time, cover with sophisticated gift-wrap paper. Or, if you're papering your room, use the same kind of wallpaper on the crate to make matchmates.


Frame a big map of the world and hang over your desk. Stick jeweled hat pins (dime store variety) in the spots you want to visit. Or clip pictures of faraway places and frame-hang over your bed. Paste each picture to a sheet of painted cardboard-shellac pictures and frames to keep clean. Mount between narrow strips of wood. Leave the wood its natural light color and wax for beauty and protection.


look in your attic or second-hand stores for old sofa or couch cushions. Slip-cover with felt, denim or easy-to-make project you can work out in a sewing group.


are both modern and practical when they're made of wood. Dime stores have small individual salad bowls. Use nail polish to paint ALL GONE.. .THAT'S ALL ...YOU'VE HAD IT...on the inside bottoms of the bowls. Wax 'til they shine and display on a shelf.


Take a pretty wood tray and saw it in half, lengthwise. Sandpaper rough edges and attach angle braces with iron cement. Be sure braces are long enough to' extend under half the width of the shelf. Show off your favorite character dolls or some souvenirs from trips. Wax shelves for less dusting.
Page 15:



that should be done-airing your bed, dusting the dresser top, hanging up your clothes, and all that. But perhaps you haven't heard about these quick tricks that help you keep everything in order... and are fun to do at the same time.


Screw small metal cup hooks to the underside of a waxed wooden hanger. Neat way to keep belts in an easy-to-find row.

Hang scarves over wire hangers-use clamp clothes pins to keep them from sliding off. Or cover a cardboard toilet tissue roll with fancy paper and string ribbon through it. Use to hold small neck scarves.

If you have Venetian blinds, paint a ring of nail polish around the pull that tips shutters down. No more guesswork.

A coat of paste wax on a curtain rod means smooth traveling for curtains or drapes-and for clothes hangers if you wax the rod in the closet.

Here are the 25 most recent documents added to the library...
to Cart
Click Thumbnail for More Information Title
Product Year # of Pages File
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download 1950 Westinghouse Laundromat Brochure
Here is a beautiful brochure from Westinghouse showing off their new 1950 model Laundromat model L-5.

Automatic Washers
Published by:
1950 16 42mb $8.99
Introductory Price of $3.99

ends in:
3 days
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download 1957 Speed Queen Washer Operating Instructions and Brochure
Complete sales literature brochure as well the operating instruction guide to 1957 Speed Queen automatic washer models A18 and A19.

Automatic Washers
Published by:
Speed Queen
1957 8 23mb $11.99
Introductory Price of $3.99

ends in:
3 days
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download 1987 Whirlpool Laundry Products Catalog
Here is a wonderful brochure highlighting the 1987 line of Whirlpool Washers and Dryers.

Models include washers: LA3400XS, LA4400XS LA5400XS, LA6300XS, LA5000XS, LA5300XS, LA5500XS, LA5700XS, LA6150XS, LA7700XS, LA3800XS, LA5380XS, LA5580XS, LA5800XS, LA7800XS, LABBOOXS, LA9800XS.

LE/G2000XS, LE/G3000XS, LE/G5700XS, LE/G5800XS, LE/G6150XS, LE/G7800XS, LE/G9800XS.
Automatic Washers & Dryers
Published by:
1987 24 67mb $14.99
Introductory Price of $3.99

ends in:
3 days
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download 1960 Hotpoint Automatic Washer Brochures
Here are beuatiful brochures for the 1960 line of Hotpoint Automatic Washers. Models include:

LW090, LW070, LW060, LW050, LW0506, LW030, LW025.
Automatic Washers
Published by:
1960 16 67mb $8.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download 1960 Hotpoint Dryer Brochures
Brochures highligting the 1960 line of Hotpoint clothes dryers.

Modes Include:

LC090, LB090, LB070, LB050, LB030
Clothes Dryers
Published by:
1960 10 38mb $8.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download 1963 Pyrex Glassware Retail Catalog
Here is a wonderful and rare catalog of Pyrex-ware glass kitchen products. Products include:

Clear ovenware, Town & Country, Turquoise, Early American, Pink, Primary sets, Casseroles, Coffee pots, saucepans, double boilers, dishware and tumblers, salt/pepper shakers. Full retail price list included at end for all products.
Full Catalog
Published by:
1963 0 47mb $14.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download 1960 Hotpoint Cooking Appliances Brochures
Beautiful brochures highlighting the 1960 line of electric ranges, cooktops, built-in ovens and the Customline Crest line of ranges as well.

Models include:
RB75-A, RB65-A, RB45-A, RB18-A, RB15-A, RA-301, RA-101, CustomLine Crest RU75-A, RU45-A, RR25-A, RJ85-A, RJ65-A, RJ35-A, RJ34-A, RJ15-A, RL75-A, RJ77-A, RJ-76A,
Published by:
1960 38 150mb $14.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download 1984 General Electric Washer Use and Care Book
Here is the complete owners manual and use/care guide to GE Automatic Washer model WWA8364V.

Automatic Washers
Published by:
General Electric
1984 32 63mb $11.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download 1962 General Electric Washers and Dryers Brochures
Here are beautiful brochures for the 1962 line of GE automatic washers, combination washer/dryers, utility sink washer and dryers.

High resolution scan of 600dpi for crisp Images and full specifications included.

Models include...
Washers: WA-1050W, WA-950W, WA-850W, WA-750W, WA-650W, WA-550W
Dryers: DA-1020W, DA-920W, DA-820W, DA-720W, DA-620W, DA-520W
Utility/Sink Washer: WB2050W
Undercounter Dryer: DU2020W
Combination Washer/Dryers: WD-860W, WD-560W
Automatic Washers & Dryers
Published by:
General Electric
1962 32 149mb $14.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download GE Pull-Out Dishwasher Operating Guide
Here is the complete owners manual and operating use/care instructions to 1962 General Electric pull-out built-in dishwashers models: SU66 and SU60.

Published by:
General Electric
1962 24 35mb $11.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download 1962 General Electric Range-Oven Brochures
Here are beautiful brochures for the 1962 line of GE free standing electric ranges and cooking appliances, including the Americana models!

High resolution scan of 600dpi for crisp Images and full specifications included.

Models include...
J790W, J792W, J760W, J762W, J791W, J761W, J763W, J408W, J750W, J304W, J404W, J303W, J403W, J406W, J402W, J302W, J400W, J401W, J301W, J299W.

Also included is the planning dimensions book the Americana model J790W.
Published by:
General Electric
1962 0 150mb $14.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download Maytag Washer Model 142B-142SB Owners Manual
Here is a rare owners manual on the first major center-dial Maytag automatic washer. Models include both 142B and 142SB (suds saver model).

Automatic Washers
Published by:
1958 26 8mb $11.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download 1990 Maytag Washers and Dryers Brochure
Beautiful brochure highlighting the 2nd to last generation of helical drive Newton made Maytag laundry appliances.

Models include:
washers: A9800, A9700, A9400, A9200, A7800, A7500, A7300.

dryers: D9900, D9800, D7600, D7500, D7400, D4000.
Automatic Washers & Dryers
Published by:
1990 16 32mb $14.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download 1970 Maytag Dishwasher Brochure
Very fun brochure highligting the Maytag top-of-the line dishwasher of the early 1970s.

Published by:
1970 6 29mb $8.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download 1965 Westinghouse Top-Loading Washer Brochures
Here are brochures produced right after the switch-over to Westinghouse's own design of top-loading automatic washers.

Models include: LAF200, LAF400 and LAF600. Dryers are also shown: DTF200, DTF400/DGF400 and DTF600/DGF600
Automatic Washers
Published by:
1965 12 53mb $8.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download 1954 Whirlpool Home Laundry Appliances Book
Here is an absolute beautifully illustrated catalog in book form from Whirlpool highlighting their 1954 line of home laundry appliances.

Products include automatic washers, dryers, wringer washers and mangle ironer.

Scanned at 600ddpi high resolution for a beautiful pdf file.
Automatic Washers & Dryers
Published by:
1954 52 171mb $14.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download Early Kenmore Dishwasher Owners Manual
I'm guessing this book is from around 1956. This is probably the first front-loading home dishwasher ever marketed by Kenmore. It's made by D&M. The dishwasher in the earlier Sears catalogs was marketed under the name Homart as a top-loading machine.

Full operating instructions, cycle chart, installation instructions and parts list included.
Published by:
1956 36 40mb $12.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download 1972 Dexter Commercial Washer Service Manual
Here is a look at the Philco-Bendix made Dexter Double-Load front loading commercial washer. What is interesting about this machine is it was designed with an overflow hose designed to overflow away suds about the 1/2 way mark of the window!

Full service manual including specifications, troubleshooting and service procedures.
Automatic Washers
Published by:
1972 72 31mb $14.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download 1954 Hamilton Gas Dryer Service Manual
Complete service manual to Hamilton gas dryer model 360G.

Sections include: General, Installation, Exhaust system, Cabinet Panels, Controls, Gas Parts, Drum and Transmission, Troubleshooting, Service Agencies.
Clothes Dryers
Published by:
1954 54 67mb $14.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download 1969 Tupperware Catalog
Here is a fastinating look at Tupperware products available in the late 1960s.

Miscellaneous Housewares
Published by:
1969 48 82mb $12.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download 1976 Kenmore Washer Service Manual
Retail generic service manual covering all Kenmore washers both full size and portable models. Sections include:

Predelivery Requirements
Installation Procedure
Moving Preparations

Component Description & Service Procedures:
Water System
Mechanical System
Electrical System
Cycle of Operation
Compact Washers
Troubleshooting Charts
Wiring Terminal Designation
Wiring Diagrams and how to read them
Lubrication Instructions
Sample Parts List
Automatic Washers
Published by:
1976 84 93mb $14.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download Classroom Textbook on Servicing Electric Ranges
Originally written in 1963 and updated in 1972 these were classroom textbooks for learning how to repair electrical appliances. A fascinating look at how appliance repair was taught and a great primer to learn how to repair vintage electric ranges.

Published by:
1972 68 109mb $14.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download Facts About Your New Mixer
Full owners manual and use/care guide to all triple-beat GE stand mixers from the 1950's.

Small Appliances
Published by:
General Electric
1955 48 23mb $11.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download 1964-1969 Whirlpool Dishwasher Service Manual
Here is the comprehensive service manual to all Whirlpool made dishwashers from 1964-1969.

Full specifications and historical design changes for each model, complete troubleshooting, service procedure information and wiring schematics.

Models include: SLU-70, SLU-76, SLU-80, SLU-82, SLU-90, SCL-95, SLC-100, SLC-200, SLC-300, SPU-68, SPU-70, SPU-80, SPU-90, SPC-100, SPC-200, SPC-300, SRC-60, SCR-70, SRC-80, SRC-90, SRU-60, SRU-70, SRU-80, SRU-85, SRU-90, SSU-70, SSU-80, SSU-85, SSU-90, SSU-100, SSF-60, SSF-70, SSF-80, SSF-90, SSF-100, STU-70, STU-80, STU-90, STU-100, STF-60, STF-70, STF-80, STF-90, STF-100
Published by:
1969 155 192mb $14.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download 1947 General Electric Ranges Owners Manual
Here is the complete owner's manual and use/care guide to all 1947 General Electric freestanding electric ranges.

Models included:
Stratoliner: DDI-47
Airliner: CDI-47
Leader: CTI-47
Published by:
General Electric
1947 56 74mb $12.99

Review Selections & Checkout          --          Continue Browsing the Library

For license and copyright information related to these materials please click here.

Please note that all publications presented here at Automatic Ephemera are on average between 35 and 85 years old. This information is presented as a educational/historical reference on vintage products of the past. Any trademarks or brand names appearing on this site are for nominative use to accurately describe the content contained in these publications. The associated trademarks are the sole property of their registered owners as there is no affiliation between Automatic Ephemera and these companies. No connection to or endorsement by the trademark owners is to be construed.