VINTAGE OWNER'S MANUALS, SERVICE MANUALS, BROCHURES AND PUBLICATIONS
FAQ
Your Recent Purchases
Contact Us
Home
Welcome to Automatic Ephemera, an independent organization/library for historical research and education, sharing public domain documents relating to vintage products.


 


Please search through our database, we have hundreds of available documents...

Search Publisher: 
   Restrict to Product: 

Full Text Search of Automatic Ephemera:   

Clear and Start New Search


Review Selections & Checkout


1951 Zenith Radio and CobraMatic Phonograph Owners Manual


Published by Zenith in 1951-- Here is the complete owners manual to all Zenith Radio/Phonograph combination units.

Number of Pages: 16
File Size: 4mb
Download Fee: $7.99

  Add 1951 Zenith Radio and CobraMatic Phonograph Owners Manual to cart
Please note that all publications presented here at Automatic Ephemera are on average between 35 and 85 years old. This information is presented as a educational/historical reference on vintage products of the past. Any trademarks or brand names appearing on this site are for nominative use to accurately describe the content contained in these publications. The associated trademarks are the sole property of their registered owners as there is no affiliation between Automatic Ephemera and these companies. No connection to or endorsement by the trademark owners is to be construed.


Review Selections & Checkout

Here is an automated summary of some of the text contained in:
1951 Zenith Radio and CobraMatic Phonograph Owners Manual
Published in 1951

Important: Please note the summary text below was created by electronically reading the scanned images with optical character recognition software (ocr). OCR technolgoy is not yet perfected and you might see some spelling and formatting errors in the preview text below. These errors are not actually in the final product, the download file you will receive is a pure clean high-resolution scan of the original document, containing all text, graphics and photos exactly as originally printed.
Page 1:

Operating Guide to help you enjoy your new Radio-Phonograph - a new world of entertainment

Page 2:

There's A World of Entertainment and Pleasure

In Your New Zenith Radio-Phonograph

This new Zenith radio-phonograph offers you a new measure of complete listening pleasure. With it you will enjoy . . . (1) the finest in record reproduction as made possible by Zenith Cobra Tone Arm and the Cobra-matic Record Changer . . . (2) amazing 3-way Cobra Tone Arm which employs the radionic-wave principle for superb, dependable reproduction of 78 R.P.M. standard records, 33 1/3 R.P.M. Long Playing Microgroove records, new 45 R.P.M. Microgroove records . . . (3) Genuine Armstrong FM-rich in tone quality and free from static or interference . . . (4) superb reception of your favorite radio programs on AM or FM.

The "Microgroove" process makes possible the recording of a full six record album on just one record. Thus a full-length symphony or concerto, or a complete selection of dance or dinner music can be played from one disc. A full loading of ten 33 1/3 R.P.M. microgroove records will give several hours of enjoyable listening pleasure.

This revolutionary new record, made of nonbreakable vinylite, permits a high quality, noise free reproduction whose high fidelity heretofore was found only in master studio recordings. A full issue of both classical and popular records of this type are now available for your enjoyment.

Your new Zenith features an improved Radiorgan which puts "tone mastery" at your fingertips . . . permits you to hear either records or broadcasts with just the tone effect you prefer.
Page 3:

FREQUENCY MODULATION

Radio broadcast transmissions are of two types, Amplitude Modulation (Standard-Broadcast) and Frequency Modulation (FM).

Frequency Modulation provides a tremendous improvement in the reduction of interference of static. In most installations, particularly those not too distant from the transmitting station, static of all types is entirely absent.

Frequency Modulation allows the transmission of not only a greatly increased tonal range, resulting in hearing musical instruments and sounds which previously have been unheard, but also of a greatly increased dynamic range, allowing the loudest and softest passages to be heard in their true proportions.

POWER SUPPLY AND OUTPUT

Your Zenith is designed for operation on 110 to 125 volts, 60 cycle alternating current (AC) only. Do not attempt to operate on direct current (DC), or damage will result. If you are not certain of the type, voltage or frequency in cycles of youf electricity, check with the electric company.

Power consumption of the entire unit, including the record changer, is 120 watts. The maximum audible power output of this receiver is 15 watts. This power output means that you have ample reserve above the requirements for any ordinary need.

UNPACKING

The record changer has been securely packed to avoid damage in shipment. Remove all packing material before attempting to operate this changer.

NOTE: The packing material will vary with type of cabinet. Be sure to read all tags and remove packing strips, bolts, etc.

Before operating the record changer, the shipping bolt holding the phono motor assembly must be removed. Proceed as follows:

Remove the turntable by lifting it directly up from the record changer. Then remove the red-stained motor shipping bolt (See Fig. 1). Be certain to retain this bolt since it should be used in case of reshipment.
Page 4:

Use a wide blade screwdriver and turn the three mounting bolts (See Fig. 4) clockwise until the heads are flush with the mounting plate. This allows the changer to "float" on its shock mounts.

REMOVE MOTOR MOUNTING BOLT

Figure 1-Motor Mounting Bolt

Antenna Systems

This set is equipped with a built-in wavemagnet eliminating the need for an external antenna and ground under normal operating conditions. If hum is apparent when operating the set, move the AC cord away from the wavemagnet.

If this, set is operated in districts far distant from broadcasting stations, the addition of an antenna 25 to 100 feet long will improve reception. Connect the antenna to the "AM" terminal on the terminal strip (See Fig. 2). Addition of a good ground connected to terminal "G" will also help to improve reception.

Figure 2-Antenna and Ground Terminals
Page 5:

For Frequency Modulation: The special built-in Line Antenna is designed for Frequency Modulation reception. In average locations, where strong signals are received from transmitting station, this antenna system will provide excellent reception. Be sure the A.C. cord is stretched out in back of the receiver. Do not coil or bunch it. Also try the plug both ways in the power socket for the position which gives best FM reception. In locations where electrical interference is experienced, particularly close to areas with heavy automobile traffic, or in locations distant from the transmitting stations, a Zenith FM Antenna Kit should be employed. Antenna Kits S-I4188 or S-14838 may be purchased from your Zenith Dealer. To connect the lead-in from the FM Antenna Kit to the receiver, first remove the line antenna (blue wire) from the antenna terminal (see Fig. 2) and connect one side of the lead-in to the FM antenna terminal and the other side to "G" terminal above. Detailed instructions are included with each antenna.

Ofrenatitty t&e 'Radia

DIAL CALIBRATION

Broadcast Band: The bottom dial scale is the broadcast portion of the dial, and is calibrated in kilocycles, minus the last zero. For example, a station listed as operating on 650 kilocycles will be found at 65 on your dial scale. A station listed at 1450 kilocycles will be tuned in at 145-and so on. Use this scale when the Phono AM-FM knob is set to AM position.

Frequency Modulation: The station channels of the Frequency Modulation band extends from 88 to 108 megacycles. To cover this range the Zenith dial has one FM scale. This scale is used when the Phono AM-FM knob is set to FM, and is calibrated from 88 MC to 108 MC.

TUNING

Broadcast Band: Figure 3 shows the position of the Tuning and Volume Control knobs. To place the instrument in operation, turn the Volume
Page 6:

Control knob to the right. Allow about 30 seconds for the tubes to reach operating temperature. Set the Phono AM-FM knob to the AM position.

To tune the receiver, turn the Tuning Control knob slowly to the desired station and readjust the Volume Control knob to the right or left for the desired volume. To turn the receiver OFF, rotate the Volume Control knob as far as it will go to the left until a "click" is heard.

Frequency Modulation: The receiver is turned ON and OFF in the same manner as in broadcast operation. The Phono AM-FM knob must be set to FM position. Tuning the receiver on the Frequency Modualtion band will require more care than on the broadcast band. A hissing sound may be noted when tuning between Frequency Modulation stations. This is normal, and will disappear as the station is tuned in. After a station is located, the pointer should be moved back and forth over it until the point of quietest reception and best tonal quality is found. Correct tuning is indicated by the disappearance of background noise. Although on rare occasions Frequency Modulation stations are heard over great distances do not expect to tune in other than your local stations. The nature of Frequency Modulation transmission limits reception to the approximate horizon.

Figure 3-Control Panel Front View
Page 7:

ZENITH RADIORGAN

The three buttons at each side of the Control Panel are the exclusive Radiorgan Tone Control for both radio and records. The six buttons, marked "Treble," "Voice," "Alto," "Bass," "Lo Bass" and "Normal," enable you to have just the tone effect you want for each program or record. Each button gives particular emphasis to one segment of the tone scale. Actually 64 different tone variations may be obtained by different combination of IN and OUT positions of the buttons.

Experiment with these button positions until you learn for yourself which tone effects you prefer. First, have all the buttons pulled out. Then, while you listen to a radio program or record, depress the "Treble" and "Voice" buttons. You will notice that the bass notes are emphasized without loss of the fundamental higher tones. Next, pull out the "Treble" and "Voice" buttons, and depress the "Bass" and "Lo Bass" buttons. With the buttons in this position, the accent will be on the higher tones, yet the lower registers are not eliminated.

LOADING THE CHANGER

For automatic operation on 3> 1/3, 45 and 78 R.P.M. records.

1. Raise record pressure arm from spindle and move to right (See Fig. 5).

2. Place the stack of records over spindle and replace record pressure arm (See Fig. 6).

3. When placing records singly or a few at a time on the spindle be certain to hold these records firmly until the pressure arm is placed over the records. This will prevent the records from prematurely falling to the turntable.

4. The record stacks may consist of the following groups:

A. Ten 10 inch 78 R.P.M. records.

B. Ten 12 inch 78 R.P.M. records.

C. Ten 10 inch 33 1/3 R.P.M. records.

D. Ten 12 inch 33 1/3 R.P.M. records.

E. Ten 7 inch 45 R.P.M. records.

F. Ten 7 inch 33 1/3 R.P.M. records.

5. Do not intermix different size or type records.
Page 8:

RECORD CHANGER MOUNTING ROl TS

TURNTABLE SPINDLE SPEED SIZE SELECTOR LEVER

REJECT BUTTON

RECORD CHANGER MOUNTING BOLT

Figure 4-Record Changer, Top View

START ING THE CHANGER

1. Set the PHONO AM-FM KNOB on the receiver control panel to PHONO.

2. Set the SPEED SHIFT LEVER for the R.P.M. of the records to be played. This automatically turns 'the changer on.

Figure 5-Moving the Pressure Arm
Page 9:

Figure 6-Loaded Record Changer

3. Set the SIZE SELECTOR LEVER for the size records to be played.

4. Press the REJECT BUTTON on the changer. Should you desire to reject a record, repeat the above operation. This will allow the next record to be played.

5. The changer will continue to repeat the last record until the SPEED SHIFT LEVER is moved to OFF position.

TURNING THE CHANGER OFF

CAUTION:

WHEN OPERATING THE RECORD CHANGER DO NOT TURN IT OFF WHILE A RECORD IS BEING CHANGED. AT THIS TIME THE MECHANISM IS ENGAGED AND TO MOVE THE TONE ARM WOULD EXTENSIVELY DAMAGE THE MECHANISM.

1. Set the SPEED SHIFT LEVER to OFF.

2. Lift the tone arm and move it to the position shown in Fig. 7.
Page 10:

Figure 7-Removing Records from Changer

UNLOADING

To remove the record stack from the turntable after the last record has been played, proceed as follows:

1. Raise record pressure arm and move^to right (See Fig. 7).

2. Raise the record stack, or as many records as you can conveniently handle straight up until the records are entirely clear of spindle. Do not put pressure on the record stack with the thumbs when lifting the stack. (See Fig. 7).

MANUAL OPERATION

1. Raise the record pressure arm and move it to the right. (See Fig. 5).

2. Place single record on turntable.

3. Adjust the SPEED SHIFT LEVER to speed of record.

4. Set the SIZE SELECTOR LEVER to MANUAL.

5. Lift Cobra tone arm and place it on record.
Page 11:

INSERTING CENTER HOLE ADAPTORS

Figure 8 illustrates two type inserts for the 45 R.P.M. large center hole records. By merely pressing the insert into the center hole of the record they can be fastened securely. These inserts can be purchased, at your local record shop.

Figure 8-Center Hole Inserts

CAUTION

BE CERTAIN WHEN REPLACING THE CARTRIDGE THAT ONLY A RED-GREEN CARTRIDGE IS USED FOR REPLACEMENT. THE USE OF ANY OTHER COLORED CARTRIDGE WILL DAMAGE THE RECORDS.

CHANGING THE NEEDLE CARTRIDGE

If it becomes necessary to change the Needle Cartridge- due to wear or mishandling, proceed as follows:

1. Set the SPEED SHIFT LEVER to OFF position.

2. Raise the Tone Arm.

3. Grasp the Needle Cartridge with the finger tips and gently pull it straight out.
Page 12:

4. Insert a new Needle Cartridge and push it in gently with the thumb. The Cartridge is indexed and can only be inserted one way. Use care -forcing the cartridge in at the wrong angle will damage the socket. Study Figure 9.

Needle Cartridge Out Inserting Needle Cartridge

Figure 9-Replacing the Needle Cartridge

CARE OF RECORDS

Small effort on your part will insure long life for your records. Do not expose them to heat from the sun, radiators/or stoves. Store your records in albums in a cool, dry place resting vertically or horizontally. Remove dust and dirt with a soft cloth using a light circular motion. Even a fine film of dust often contains abrasive particles which, when ground against the record surface by the needle, may cause very rapid wear.

1. Excessive scratch and poor tone quality are usually caused by worn or warped records. The amount of surface and background noise on new records will vary, depending on the quality of manufacture, the type of music recorded, and the care given the records. An occasional squeak may be heard. This may be caused by friction between the spindle and the records on the turntable. A thin application of wax or paraffin to the lower part of the spindle will eliminate the squeak.

2. Never allow records to remain on the spindle when the Record Changer is not in use. To do so may result in warping of records and failure of the changer to play such records.
Page 13:

3. Thin substandard records may drop double into playing position.

4. Thick substandard records may not slide down in playing position.

5. Occasional soft records may chip and wear out quickly at the center hole.

6. Warped or dished records, or records with bulging center holes will slip on the turntable stack and not properly drive records above. This causes "wows" and uneven speeds.

TUBES
This diagram (Fig. 10) indicates the location of the various tubes in the chassis. We suggest that tube replacements be made by your Zenith service man. However, if it should ever be necessary for you to do this yourself, the diagram will indicate type and location of each tube.

SERVICE
The Zenith Automatic Record Changer is constructed with a minimum of working parts, and its operation is simple and reliable. As is the case with all mechanical devices, minor adjustments may occasionally be necessary. Call your authorized Zenith dealer for professional service when required.
Page 14:

STATION LOG

STATION FREQUENCY LOCATION


Here are the 25 most recent documents added to the library...
Add
High-Res
Download
to Cart
Click Thumbnail for More Information Title
and
Description
Product Year # of Pages File
Size
Download
Fee
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download 1971 Frigidaire Commercial Washer Service Manual
Here is the first and comprehensive service manual introducing the completely redesigned Frigidaire coin-operated washers. Two models include WCS-M which is the first larger capacity, perforated tub Frigidaire commercial washer rated at 16lb as the fill level was set only to bottom of the last agitator cone. The other model WCDS-M which is the last of the Frigidaire solid tub washers, which is a solid-tub set in the 1/18 outer tub with the 1/18 transmission and suspension system.


Automatic Washers
Published by:
Frigidaire
1971 92 145mb $14.99
Introductory Price of $3.99


ends in:
4 days
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download 1995 Frigidaire Laundry Appliances Brochure
Here is a full brochure showing off the WCI made Frigidaire line of automatic washers and dryers from the mid 1990's.


Automatic Washers & Dryers
Published by:
Frigidaire
1995 0 41mb $7.99
Introductory Price of $3.99


ends in:
4 days
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download 1972 Hotpoint Dishwasher Use and Care Guide
Here is the use and care guide to the 1972 line of Hotpoint Dishwashers.


Dishwashers
Published by:
Hotpoint
1972 16 17mb $7.99
Introductory Price of $3.99


ends in:
4 days
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download 1958 Hotpoint Automatic Washer Service Manual
Here is the comprehensive service manual to all 1958 Hotpoint automatic washers. 1958 was the first year Hotpoint introduced their new Co-Axial transmission.

Models include:
10LW40, 10LW43, 10LW44, 10LWS44, 10LW45, 10LWW45
Automatic Washers
Published by:
Hotpoint
1958 40 91mb $7.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download 1987 Gibson Washers and Dryers Brochure
Sales literature brochure for the 1987 line of Gibson washers and dryers.

Models include:
WASHER: WA28F2WT WA28M2WT WA28M4WT WA28M6WT
DRYER: DE/DG28T3WT DE/DG28ASWT DE/DG28A7WT
Automatic Washers & Dryers
Published by:
Gibson
1987 8 19mb $7.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download 1935-1955 Easy Spin-Dryer Washer Parts Catalog
Here is a fascinating look at the early history of the Easy Spin-Dryer washers from what appears to be the very first model all the way through the mid 1950's. Different wash methods and agitators were designed as well as solid tub and perforated tub spinners.


Twin Tub Washers
Published by:
Easy
1955 107 78mb $14.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download 1954-1955 Norge Automatic Washer Owners Manual
Here is the complete owners manual and operating instructions to the '54 and '55 line of Norge automatic washers.

Models include: AW-450, AW-452, AW-420, AW-410, AW-405 and AW-423.
Automatic Washers
Published by:
Norge
1954 33 23mb $7.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download 1969 Norge Automatic Washer Owners Manual
Here is the complete Use and Care guide along with the Washing Guide for Norge automatic washer model AWK1820.


Automatic Washers
Published by:
Norge
1969 48 57mb $7.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download 1949-1950 General Electric Heating Appliances Catalog
Here is a beautifully illistrated catalog showing many of General Electric's small appliances including Triple Beat Mixers, Coffee Makers, Toasters, Irons, Automatic Roasters, Waffle Makers and Sandwich Grills.


Small Appliances
Published by:
General Electric
1949 25 90mb $7.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download 1961 Philco Automatic Washer and Dryer Brochures
Here is the entire 1961 line of Philco automatic washers and dryers. 1961 was the first year Philco went to a perforated wash tub design but still utilizing the 1959-1960 12lb tub capacity and wobbling "High Frequency" agitator.

Models include: W-2140, W-2100, DE-6140, DG-6140.

Also included at end is the full 1961 price list for dealers. Please note there are a few duplicates of certain brochures in this pdf to capture everything we have found.
Automatic Washers
Published by:
Philco
1961 15 30mb $7.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download 1961 Philco Duomatic Combination Washer-Dryer Brochures
Here is the complete line of 1961 Philco Duomatic combination washer-dryers. Models include: C-716 (Left over design from 1960 models), C-714, C-712, C-710.


Combination Washer/Dryers
Published by:
Philco
1961 10 11mb $7.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download 1963 Philco Duomatic Use and Care Book
Complete owner's manual to the top of the line 1963 Philco Duomatic model CE-734.


Combination Washer/Dryers
Published by:
Philco
1963 16 12mb $7.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download 1966 Easy Automatic Washer Service Manual
Here is the comprehensive service manual to all 1966 Easy Automatic Washers.


Automatic Washers
Published by:
Easy
1966 40 47mb $7.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download 1968 Whirlpool Laundry Appliances Fax-Pac
Here is the official Whirlpool feature training book highlighting the 1968 Whirlpool washer, dryer, wringer washer and portable model lines. Whirlpool fans this beautiful book is definitely for you. This training series was similar to Frigidaire's VIP series which was given to appliance dealers to educate them of all the wonderful new features on Whirlpool appliances. Book contains beautiful images, cycle charts, graphics and comparisons for all aspects of the belt-drive washer and matching dryers and wringer washers.

Introduces new "Decorator Front Panel" option with woodtone fronts!

This item is scanned at 600dpi for super crisp clear text and images.
Automatic Washers & Dryers
Published by:
Whirlpool
1966 43 121mb $7.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download GE Dishwasher GSD452 Use and Care Guide
Here is the complete Use and Care Guide packed with every GE GSD452 model dishwasher from the late 1970s.


Dishwashers
Published by:
General Electric
1978 4 5mb $7.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download Crosley Automatic Washer Use and Care Guide
Here is the complete owners manual and operating instructions to the 1954 Crosley front loading automatic washer. Includes quick start guide at end.


Automatic Washers
Published by:
Crosley
1954 47 64mb $7.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download The Maytag Art of Dependability Book
Illustrations on the following pages are of quality exhibits which are being, or have been, circulated through display cases in the Maytag plants and offices. These displays are used to inform employees how their own and other departments contribute to the quality of Maytag products.


Automatic Washers
Published by:
Maytag
1967 31 73mb $7.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download 1963 Westinghouse Laundromat Service Manual
Here is the comprehensive service manual to all 1963 Westinghouse automatic washers.


Automatic Washers
Published by:
Westinghouse
1963 49 61mb $7.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download 1963 Westinghouse Clothes Dryer Service Manual
Here is the comprehensive service manual to all Westinghouse clothes dryers from 1963.


Clothes Dryers
Published by:
Westinghouse
1963 37 45mb $7.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download Whirlpool Washer LAA5300-LAB5300 Owners Manual
Here is the complete owners manual and use and care guide to Whirlpool automatic washer models: LAA5300, LAA5305, LAB5300.


Automatic Washers
Published by:
Whirlpool
1972 26 36mb $7.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download Very First Hotpoint Automatic Washer Service Manual
Here is the comprehensive service manual to the very first automatic washer produced by Hotpoint. Model: LC2


Automatic Washers
Published by:
Hotpoint
1949 50 37mb $7.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download 1949-1956 Hotpoint Automatic Washer Parts Catalog
Here is the comprehensive parts catalog which includes parts diagrams, part numbers and full image of each model of the earliest Hotpoint automatic washers. Even includes the rare window lid Hotpoint washer!

Models include: 10LC2, 20LC2, 21LC2, 10-20LC3, 10-20LH1, 10-20LH2, 5LH7, 10LH7, 10LH8, 10-LH11, 11-LH11, 12-LH11, 10-LH12, 12-LH12, 10-LJ2, 10LH3, 10LJ11, 12LJ11, 11LJ16, 10LK1, 10LK2, 10LK11, 12LK11.

Having the manufacturers part number for the part you need is essential for doing internet/eBay searches to locate these rare, no longer available parts. In many circumstances they can be found once you know the part number.
Automatic Washers
Published by:
Hotpoint
1956 124 60mb $7.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download 1967 Whirlpool Dishwasher Brochures
Here are some sales literature brochures highlighting the 1967 line of Whirlpool dishwashers. Models include:

Built-in:
SRU-90, SRU-80, SRU-70, SRU-60

Portable:
SRP-90, SRP-80, SRP-70, SRP-60, SRC-70
Dishwashers
Published by:
Whirlpool
1967 12 34mb $7.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download 1962 Philco Wonder Wash Agitator Brochure
Here is a super cool brochure for the 1962 line of Philco automatic washers. Full feature chart included.


Automatic Washers
Published by:
Philco
1962 9 6mb $7.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download Very First Staber Automatic Washer Brochure and Operating Instructions
Here is the brochure, installation and operating instructions to the very first Staber Automatic Washer. The Staber was a USA made horizonal access top loading washer, the first produced horizonal access washer since the 1947-1952 Launderall/Horton washer.


Automatic Washers
Published by:
Staber
1993 11 11mb $7.99

Review Selections & Checkout          --          Continue Browsing the Library

For license and copyright information related to these materials please click here.

Please note that all publications presented here at Automatic Ephemera are on average between 35 and 85 years old. This information is presented as a educational/historical reference on vintage products of the past. Any trademarks or brand names appearing on this site are for nominative use to accurately describe the content contained in these publications. The associated trademarks are the sole property of their registered owners as there is no affiliation between Automatic Ephemera and these companies. No connection to or endorsement by the trademark owners is to be construed.