1963 COMPACT CARS
LARK V-8 • RAMBLER AMBASSADOR 990 V-8 RAMBLER AMERICAN 220 • VALIANT V-100
HAND LAWN MOWERS
Keeping cool with air conditioners & fans WALKIE-TALKIE KIT
Spinet, Console, and Studio Pianos Automatic electric-eye 35mm cameras
AUTOMATIC WASHING MACHINES
There are three basic electric-eye systems used on cameras nowadays. The first is the so-called cross-coupled-exposure-meter type. The user first sets the ASA speed of the film being used, on a dial on the camera body, and points the camera at the subject. The pointer of the built-in meter is linked to the shutter speed setting control and the diaphragm (lens aperture) setting control. The photographer rotates either the shutter speed or diaphragm setting control until the indicator or pointer on the meter coincides with a reference mark. The camera is then set for the proper exposure.
The second type of electric-eye camera is the semiautomatic, on which the ASA film speed first is set on a dial, then the diaphragm or shutter speed is set automatically as the shutter is tripped by the user. Generally the shutter speed is selected by the user to suit his judgment of what the scene requires, and the electric eye selects the right diaphragm opening, which is set by the act of pressing the shutter release button. (On automatic Polaroid Land models, the electric eye sets the shutter speed.)
The third type, the fully automatic camera, is the one in which the electric eye automatically selects both shutter speed and f stop (aperture).
The cross-coupled camera (the first type described above) requires the most adjust-
This article is the first of two reports. The listings in the present article are of six fully automatic cameras that have fixed shutter speeds or which set the shutter and diaphragm automatically. Part two, which will appear in next month's Consumer Bulletin, will include three cameras of the cross-coupled-meter type and also four semiautomatic cameras, on which the user sets the shutter speed and the electric eye determines only the lens aperture.
ments by the user, but it has the advantage that the camera can be set manually throughout the entire range of settings available, and if the meter should fail, the camera is still completely usable.
The camera with automatically-set diaphragm (type two described above) may provide for as many as four or more shutter speeds. Usually cameras in this category can be operated manually, but most of them at one shutter speed only (1/30 or 1/60 of a second). (This speed is also used for flash bulbs.) The single shutter speed is a fairly serious limitation since fast shutter speeds are desirable for sharp pictures, to overcome the effects of camera motion, or vibration.
The fully automatic cameras (the third
(Continued on page 29)
The Consumers'1 Observation Post
THE LIST PRICE OF A NEW OR USED AUTOMOBILE is not the full cost by any means. Although a law was passed a few years ago requiring factory prices to be displayed on vehicles, there are certain extras in addition to the sheet pasted on the door window. The first is state and city sales taxes. In Pennsylvania, for example, the state tax is 4 percent, which would add $80 to a $2000 car. Two other items are insurance and the cost of financing. According to a survey made by the University of Chicago, the purchaser of a new car priced at $2000 may pay from $230 to $280 to finance the purchase through an auto dealer or around $194 through a bank. Financing a used car may cost considerably more. Insurance may run as high as 2 percent of the unpaid balance on the car, although credit life insurance should be separate from other types of auto insurance, and, according to one company, should never run higher than 1/3 of 1 percent of the unpaid balance. Always have the dealer provide a breakdown of the cost of financing and the cost of insurance in order to determine how much is being charged for each.
* * *
KNITTED GARMENTS of Orion Sayelle should be laundered somewhat differently from regular Orion garments. Orion Sayelle has a crimp that provides a certain amount of elasticity and bulk with light weight. However, when a garment is wet, it will stretch and should
not be hung on a hanger to drip dry, nor should it even be placed on
a Turkish towel to dry. It is best tumble-dried at 140°F. The National Institute of Drycleaning reports that, when they are properly handled, sweaters of Orion Sayelle can be either dry cleaned or wet cleaned, and returned to very near their original measurements even if they have been overstretched, but they do require special expert handling.
* * *
EXERCISE IS CONSIDERED USEFUL for relief of stress and strain. One newspaper columnist points out that various experiments have indicated that exercise has also been effective in reducing blood cholesterol. Burning off a few calories by walking just one mile a day may not only reduce tension and help control weight, but give one a pleasant feeling of physical fitness and pep.
* * *
WOMEN'S SPIKE HEELS are not only a menace to carpet, linoleum, and floors, but they may be dangerous to the driver of an automobile. One automobile association has warned women drivers that long thin heels may get wedged between the floorboard and the hinge of the gas pedal so that to free the heel it may be necessary to depress the accelerator further toward the floor. The extra speed and power thus achieved may cause a serious accident. It is suggested that women carry an extra pair of low-heeled shoes in the car to wear while driving, if they are given to wearing spike heels.
* * *
BREAD is useful in a reducing or weight-control diet only if you eat less of it. The Federal Trade Commission looking into the advertising of National Bakers Services, Inc., for Hollywood bread pointed out that standard breads are normally sliced into twenty 23-gram slices per 1-pound loaf. Hollywood bread, on the other hand, is sliced into twenty-five 18-gram slices per 1-pound loaf. Since it weighs less, the 18-gram slice provides proportionately fewer calories as compared to 63 calories in the 23-gram slice of standard bread. With equal slices the calorie difference would be slight.
CERTAIN VITAMINS IN LARGE DOSES may be toxic. That is a warning by Dr. Charles S. Davidson, Boston, Mass., in a lecture to medical students. He advised his students that vitamin administration is no substitute for care in diagnosis, and vitamins should not be used as placebos or to fortify suggestion in treating a neurasthenic patient. Normal individuals eating a variety of nutritious food need no prophylactic or therapeutic vitamins or minerals.
* * *
RUGS MADE FROM SYNTHETIC FUR FABRIC are becoming increasingly popular in pastel shades. What to do with them when they become soiled is a problem. Properly handled, according to Miss Helen M. Horn of the American Institute of Laundering laboratories, they can be washed in the automatic washer. To keep the fur fibers from twisting and matting, they should be washed at a slow speed the way you would handle wool to keep it from felting. After a short extraction time, fur fabric rugs should be air dried and thoroughly brushed before they are completely dry. There is a special furrier's brush for carding fibers to restore the pile that can usually be obtained at notion counters. Do not dry the rugs in a tumbler drier. In washing rugs, the backing sometimes presents problems.
It may become tacky or brittle, may become dark, or even wash off entirely. If this happens, return the rug to the store from which it was purchased. With a properly made rug, careful washing will produce good results.
* * *
MORE BUTTER IS BEING EATEN by people who receive it free through the Federal price support program than by the general public. According to The Wall Street Journal, needy people receiving butter allotments averaged about 10 pounds each in 1962. The per capita consumption was 6.2 pounds for the general public. There were still nearly 300 million pounds of butter stockpiled by the Federal government at the close of 1962, over twice as much as in the previous year.
* * *
TINTED GLASSES should never be worn to reduce the glare of oncoming headlights while driving at night. That advice was stressed by the National Safety Council recently, which pointed out that tinted lenses reduce the total light transmitted to the eye, making it more difficult to see at night. The NSC recommended instead that the driver blinded by glaring headlights of an approaching car shift his gaze to the right side of the road where white margin lines are usually painted to provide a guide in darkness. If sunglasses are worn while driving in the daytime, they should be removed at dusk.
* * *
THE THERMOELECTRIC CONTROL SYSTEMS on new electric and gas ranges are just too complicated for many women. That was the conclusion of appliance manufacturers who are revising their concepts of program cooking and simplifying the selection of operations offered, reports Home Furnishings Daily. The programming systems are costly to manufacture and difficult for women to operate. One supplier reported that field checks indicated that only 1 out of 50 housewives was correctly using the "burner with a brain." She was a newlywed who had recently read the instruction book. The current trend of the new ranges is toward controls that are simple and more dependable.
* * *
MEN'S SUITS THIS FALL WILL BE HIGHER IN PRICE due to increased wage rates and a rise in the price of fabrics. It is predicted that suits will carry price tags from $5 to $10 higher than a year ago.
(The continuation of this section is on page 41)
THE ORIGINAL CONSUMER INFORMATION MAGAZINE
CONSUMER BULLETIN is published by Consumers' Research, a non-profit institution. It is organized and operates as a scientific, technical, and educational service for consumers. The organization has no support from business or industry. Its funds come solely from the ultimate consumers who read CONSUMER BULLETIN.
Responsibility for all specific statements of fact or opinion at any time made by Consumers' Research lies wholly with the technical director and staff of the organization.
Listings of products are usually arranged in alphabetical order (not in order of merit) within the A, B, and C rating groups. The omission of a make or brand from any group of listings is not to be taken as indicating any rating or judgment of that make or brand, favorable or unfavorable.
A numeral 1, 2, or 3 at the end of a listing indicates relative price, 1 being low, 3 high. Where the 1, 2, 3 price ratings are given, brands in the 1, or least expensive, group are listed alphabetically, followed by brands in price group 2, also in alphabetical order, etc. A quality judgment is wholly independent of price.
CONTENTS JUNE 1963
Automatic electric-eye 35 mm. cameras................................ 2
The first of two reports on this outstandingly popular type of camera. The six listings in this issue are of "fully automatic" cameras, which have electric-eye systems that set the shutter and diaphragm automatically
No space for a grand piano? Then consider a vertical instrument... 6
Buying a vertical piano; how to select a new or used piano. Ratings of 1 5 studio and professional upright pianos, and 21 console and spinet pianos are included
Hand lawn mowers...................... .............................. 10
A good hand lawn mower will do a better job of cutting grass on a good lawn than a push-type rotary power mower, is not much harder to push in cutting grass of normal height, and is much safer for the user and others near by
Those pesky moths (and beetles, too)................................. 13
There are ways to keep their hungry offspring out of your woolens
Small portable vise.................................................. 14
Valuable pamphlet on chemicals in foods.............................. 14
Reports on 4 compact cars
Lark Custom V-8................................................. 15
Rambler Ambassador V-8.......................................... 16
Rambler American 220............................................ 16
Valiant V-1 00.................................................. 17
Recent reprints from Consumer Bulletin............................... 19
Automatic washing machines........................................... 20
16 makes and models are included in this test report
"Extended" warranties and service contracts.......................... 27
Read the fine print closely!
Air conditioners and fans............................................ 33
Condensed listings of 1 2 air conditioners and 18 fans
New pamphlet on vegetables and vegetable cookery recommended 37
Walkie-talkie kits useful in many ways............................... 43
Eight ounces of fun and utility for children and grownups
The Consumers' Observation Post...................................... 3
Index of January through May 1963 Consumer Bulletins................. 32
Off the editor's chest-Salmonella increasing as a cause of food
Phonograph Records-Welter F. Grueninger.............................. 38
Ratings of Current Motion Pictures................................... 39
NO SPACE FOR A GRAND PIANO? Then consider a vertical instrument
Pianos are generally divided into two groups: the grands, and the upright or vertical pianos. The latter again fall into two groups: the consoles and the spinets. The dividing line between these two is not, however, as commonly believed, determined by the size of the instrument, but rather by the action which it uses, although some manufacturers still do not use the technically correct distinctions in describing their pianos.
The large upright piano that ceased to be produced some 30 years ago, during the depression of the 1930's, when piano buying was at a low ebb, was often a really fine musical instrument, but because of its rather large size and unattractive appearance it was deemed undesirable as a piece of furniture.
When the manufacture of pianos picked up again, the potential buyer found beautifully styled new pieces of musical furniture that took the nation by storm. Unfortunately, these new small pianos could not in any way come near to what is expected of a good piano in musical performance and versatility.
The very matter of size presents a difficulty. The acoustical output of the piano's strings depends upon three factors: 1) vibrating length of strings, 2) weight of the strings
per unit length, or gauge, and 3) tension, or the stretching force required to bring each string into tune.
A small vertical piano, standing say 40 inches above the floor, must have the strings that run below the E below middle C down to the end of the bass shorter than correct proportioning would call for. The lack of length must then be compensated by increasing the weight of each successive bass string by a layer of wire wound in a helix around the string. Since a weight increase or decrease has less effect on the pitch than an increase or decrease of length, the weight must be increased at a rate faster than the length is reduced. This, of course, upsets the balance of the physical factors of the strings and the sound output is adversely affected.
The second difference lies in the fact that the soundboard of the piano varies in area according to the dimensions of the instrument. The restricted area of the soundboard of a small piano will reduce its sound output especially through the bass region. We must conclude that the small console or the spinet is, as a musical instrument, neither acoustically nor mechanically satisfactory. In the meantime, piano makers apparently came to realize
the potential market for larger vertical pianos, and many of them now offer relatively large consoles, called "studio" pianos or "professional uprights."
Buying a used piano
Just as many people prefer to buy a good used car, so they might also prefer to buy a good used piano-rather than a new one of inferior type or make. At times one can buy a good secondhand instrument for little money. The safest way to buy a used piano is to buy it from a reputable dealer, who may, if asked, give a 5- or 10-year warranty. There are times, however, when a piano can be bought at a considerably lower price direct from its owner. Try to get the advice of an expert, such as a piano tuner or technician.
In the absence of professional advice, the prospective buyer would be wise to follow the advice which an expert piano technician offers:
1) The first thing to do when looking at an old piano is to find the serial number. On an upright, this is somewhere at the top of the plate above the pins. Once you have located it, phone the nearest piano tuner or repairman and ask him to look up the number in "Michel's Piano Atlas." This "atlas" gives the date of manufacture of almost all pianos, domestic and foreign, within 6 months or a year. In this way you will know how old the piano is. Repair parts may not be available for pianos of too early a vintage.
2) Check the condition of the finish on the case. If it is badly checked, the piano may have been standing near a window or a radiator, and its mechanical parts may also have been affected unfavorably.
3) Look at the condition of the hammers. Check that they are all there; see if the felts show any moth damage or if they have any deep creases caused by striking the strings for many years. Installing a new set could be an expensive job which may sometimes cost as much as $125.
4) On an upright, look at the "bridle straps." These are pieces of tape that come out from under the hammer butts and are attached to coiled wires next to the back-catches. Bridle straps have two functions: they help to pull back the hammer for the next blow, and they hold the action together
when it is taken out. On old pianos, these straps are made of webbing with leather tips, and they disintegrate with the years. If new ones are needed, their installation may cost anywhere from $10 to $35.
5) Remove the fall-board, exposing the full length of the keys and remove a few keys. This can be done without taking out the action. If there is any evidence of mouse droppings or moth damage, expensive repairs may be needed.
6) Look at the condition of the ivory of the keys. Discoloration will not matter, but chipping or cracking will mean fairly high repair costs. Covering the white keys with new plastic may cost from $25 to $60.
7) You will be well advised to play the piano, or at least go up and down the scale. If the piano is badly out of tune, tuning it will be regarded as a "repair job," and the cost for putting it in order would by far exceed the price usually paid for ordinary tuning.
How to select a vertical piano
It is usually wise to seek advice from a professional musician before a piano is purchased. Familiarity with trade names of the better makes is also advisable. One should beware of the so-called "stencil" brands. Large retailers sometimes buy consignments of pianos from a manufacturer who will place on the fallboard the name of the retailer instead of his own. The name of the manufacturer can be found cast on the metal plate of many of these pianos. If the name of the manufacturer cannot be found anywhere on a piano, the potential buyer should not even consider its purchase.
One should not be misled by scientific-sounding terms found in advertising literature; if the salesman or dealer cannot explain terms, such as "Diacron Scale," "Ori-Coustic Scale," "C.S.F. Scale," to your satisfaction as a layman, you will not be likely to make a mistake if you regard it as just the advertising man's technique of adding a special basis of sales appeal to his product.
The following are some of the basic qualities that should be checked in buying any make or type of piano:
THE DIRECT BLOW ACTION
Pressing down on the key A raises the whippen B. The whippen pushes up the "jack" C which pushes up the hammer butt D and forces the hammer E towards the strings. This type of action is employed in console pianos, including studio pianos and professional uprights.
Every piano salesman will extol the tonal beauty of any instrument you look at. Every manufacturer insists that here is a point where his product definitely outclasses the field. Pianos have "voices," much as human beings do. The prospective purchaser will be wise to listen to several pianos, so that he may pick an instrument with a voice that is pleasing to his ear. How well the piano will sound after a considerable period of use is another matter, ft is never safe to buy on the basis of initial tone quality alone.
Key resistance. The key resistance or "touch weight" is defined as the load necessary to depress the key. It is measured at a point about 1/2 inch from the front edge of a natural or white key, with the damper pedal depressed. Too light a touch means poor control of the tonal volume in playing. What is really needed is an approximation to the touch of a grand piano. Grand pianos have a key resistance of about 50 grams, or roughly
2 ounces. (A resistance much under 50 grams is not satisfactory for building a pianist's technique.)
Key dip. This should be 3/8 of an inch. A shallow action of the keys is a handicap in playing. Likewise, a key dip deeper than the standard is inadvisable.
Repetition. A professional pianist will probably test this point first. He will repeat the same note as rapidly as possible to ascertain the accuracy of response of the instrument to the motion of his fingers.
Sustaining ability. Play a single note and hold it. Listen to the tone as it dies away. The diminuendo should be gradual. If it is jerky, the voicing is not well adjusted. A deficiency in this respect is common, even in fine pianos. Try to find an instrument that sounds right in sustaining its tones. Marked deviations from steady decrease of volume will be clear even to the untrained ear.
The listings which follow are based on expert opinion rather than on scientific tests and are intended as a general guide only.
Studio and professional upright pianos
Bechstein (Distributed by John Wanamaker Philadelphia Inc., Philadelphia 1; made in West Germany) $1900 to $2150, delivered in the U.S.; bench included. Height, 45 and 50 in.
Everett (Everett Piano Co., South Haven, Mich.) $805 to $885; bench not included. Height, 45 1/3 in.
Hamilton (The Baldwin Piano Co., 1801 Gilbert Ave., Cincinnati 2) $958 to $1002; bench not
included. Height, 45 in.
Krakauer (Krakauer Bros., 115 E. 138 St., New York 51) $995 to $1475; bench not included.
Height, 41 and 48 in.
Mason & Hamlin (Mason & Hamlin, Div. Aeolian Corp., East Rochester, N.Y.) $1450 and $1480; bench not included. Height, 42 in.
Rippen (Rippen Piano Fabriek N.V., Reehor-sterweg 50, Ede, Holland; made in Holland) $1200 to $1400, f.o.b. port of entry; bench not included. Height, 47 to 53 in.
Sohmer (Sohmer & Co., Inc., 31 W. 57 St., New York 19) $1105 to $1165; bench included.
Height, 45 in.
Steinway (Steinway & Sons, 109 W. 57 St., New York 19) $1550 to $1925; bench not included; Sostenuto pedal, $75 extra. Height, 45 and 46J4 in.
Cable (Conover-Cable Piano Co., Oregon, 111.) $845 and $880; bench not included. Height,
Fischer (J. & C. Fischer, Div. of Aeolian Corp.) $880 to $900; bench not included. Height, 45 in.
Starck (P. A. Starck Piano Co., 2160 N. Ashland Ave., Chicago 14) $860 to $949; bench not included. Height, 44 in.
Steck (George Steck, Div. of Aeolian Corp.) $880 to $900; bench not included. Height, 45 in.
Weber (Weber, Div. of Aeolian Corp.) $880 to $900; bench not included. Height, 45 in.
Wurlitzer (The Wurlitzer Co., De Kalb, III.) $815 to $865; bench not included. Height, 45 in.
Yamaha (Yamaha International Corp., 1300 S. San Pedro St., Los Angeles 15; made in Japan) $735 and $960, delivered in the U.S.; bench included. Height, 45 and 48 in.
Console and spinet pianos
Chickering (Chickering & Sons, Div. of Aeolian Corp.) $1140 to $1420; bench not included. Height, 40 in.
Everett (Everett Piano Co.) $805 to $1055; bench not included. Height, 37^ and 41 in.
Knabe (Wm. Knabe & Co., Div. of Aeolian Corp.) $1210 to $1480; bench included. Height, 40 in.
Knight (Alfred Knight, Ltd., Langston Rd., Debden Estate, Laughton, Essex, England; made
THE DROP ACTION
Pressing down on the key A pulls up the whippen B and the "jack" C that raises the hammer butt D, causing the hammer E to strike the strings. This type of action is employed in spinet pianos and is considered difficult to service.
in England) $1000 to $1200, delivered in the U.S.; bench included. Height, 37^ to 43 in.
Krakauer (Krakauer Bros.) $1095 to $1795; bench not included. Height, 37 to 41 in.
Mason & Hamlin (Mason & Hamlin, Div. of Aeolian Corp.) $1450 to $1785; bench not included. Height, 40 in.
Rippen (Rippen Piano Fabriek N.V.; made in Holland and Ireland) $800 to $1100, f.o.b. port of entry; bench not included. Height, 42 in.
Sohmer (Sohmer & Co., Inc.) $1160 to $1550; bench included. Height, 41 in.
Steinway (Steinway & Sons) $1575 to $1925; bench not included. Height, 40 in.
Baldwin Acrosonic (The Baldwin Piano Co.) $888 to $1395; bench not included. Height, 36 and 40 in.
Cable Nelson (Cable-Nelson Piano Co., South Haven, Mich.) $595 to $895; bench not included. Height, 36J^ and 41 in.
Fischer (J. & C. Fischer, Div. of Aeolian Corp.) $790 to $1000; bench not included. Height, 37 and 40 in.
Janssen (Janssen Piano Co., Inc., 237 E. 23 St., New York 10) $499 to $1235; bench not in-
cluded. Height, 38 to 41 in.
Kohler & Campbell (Kohler & Campbell, Inc., Granite Falls, N.C.) $715 to $1030; bench not included. Height, 38 and 41 in.
Steck (George Steck, Div. of Aeolian Corp.) $790 to $1000; bench not included. Height, 37 and 40 in.
Weber (Weber, Div. of Aeolian Corp.) $930 to $1010; bench not included. Height, 40 in.
Wurlitzer (The Wurlitzer Co.) $495 to $925; bench included on some models. Height, 35 to 40 in. The lowest-priced models employing a drop action would have to be given a B- rating.
Yamaha (Yamaha International Corp.; made in Japan) $795; bench included. Height, 36 in.
Cable (Conover-Cable Piano Co.) $645 to $910; bench not included. Height, 38 and 40 in.
Gulbransen (Gulbransen Co., 2050 N. Ruby St., Melrose Park, 111.) $625 to $780; bench included. Height, 37 to 41 in.
Starck (P. A. Starck Piano Co.) $595 to $889; bench not included. Height, 37 and 41 in.
HAND LAWN MOWERS
For many a small and moderate sized lawn, and for the many people who need some healthful outdoor exercise, a hand-operated lawn mower is most desirable and much to he preferred, for safety, to an engine-powered rotary mower
Many homeowners with small lawns would be much better off with a good hand-operated reel-type lawn mower rather than a power rotary mower, not only because the hand lawn mower is much safer, but because the better ones are not much harder to push than a power rotary mower that does not have the selfpropulsion feature. Besides, a hand-operated mower will do a better job of grass cutting than a rotary mower, and the best hand mowers are very quiet in operation. (All rotary power mowers, and especially those that are self-propelled, are exceedingly dangerous to users, and others near by. Rotary mowers are often very noisy, and disturbing to neighbors, or to persons who are ill.)
One kind of hand lawn mower is known as the "free-reel" type. In these, the reel blades are set so that the blades do not quite touch the cutter bar. If the mower is correctly adjusted, a strip of newspaper inserted between the blades and the cutter bar should be pinched but not cut when the reel is turned by hand in the direction opposite to that in which it normally turns. Free-reel mowers are very quiet in operation and do an excellent job of mowing when the blades are sharp. However, they are likely to require sharpening more frequently than the regular type of mower because "free-reel" blades do not have running contact against a cutter bar. (Such contact will tend to provide a certain degree of "self-sharpening" action.)
The bed knives of the mowers tested were adjusted to the reels either by setting opposing screws, using a screwdriver, or by setting opposing nuts on eye bolts, using a wrench. Both methods were found satisfactory in use, and judged about equally convenient (except Craftsman Cat. No. 99-8129; see listing).
In selecting a hand mower, it is well to remember that, in general, the wider the cut the harder the mower will be to push.
For small lawns, inclines, and terraces, a
16-inch mower is satisfactory; for larger, fairly level lawns, 18-inch mowers are to be preferred, if a man is to do the mowing. Hand mowers cutting a wider strip than 18 inches are not practical.
Good hand lawn mowers are not cheap. Strange as it may seem, good ones may cost more than a rotary power mower. For example, one of the large mail-order houses offers a 23-horsepower 20-inch push-type engine-powered rotary mower for $30, while their best 18-inch hand mower sells for $32.50.
In CR's tests, the bed knives and reel knives of all the mowers were found to be of satisfactory hardness. The cuts per foot as given in the listings are the number of cuts the reel knives make for each foot of linear travel of the mower. For good performance, the number of cuts per foot should not be less than nine. Hand lawn mowers are listed in alphabetical order within the A- and 5-rated groups.
Craftsman Cat. No. 99-8123
A. Recommended Silent Yard-Man, Model 1000-3 (Yard-Man, Inc., Jackson, Mich.) $37.95. Weight, 35 lb. 10 oz. Width of cut, 15% in. "F'ree-reel" cutter. Steel end plates. Reel runs on ball bearings. Wheels run on steel shafts with bronze sleeve bearings. Rear roller, one-piece, rubber covered. Bed knife adjusted by opposing nuts on eye bolts. Cutting height adjustment (% to 2J4 in.) in three ranges, low, medium, and high. To change from one range to another required changing location of the wheel shafts. Adjustment within each range was provided for by raising or lowering of the rear roller, secured by large hand-operated knobs (a convenient and practical arrangement). The mower had guards to help prevent grass from winding around the ends of the reel (very desirable). The mower lacked hooks for attaching grass catcher. Cuts per foot, 9. Protection of gears against dirt and grass clippings, good. Adjustment of blades as received, very good. This mower was found relatively easy to push and very quiet in operation. Grass cutting ability, good. KThis mower was similar to Wards " Whispering" Garden Mark except for width of cut. "Whispering" Garden Mark (Wards Cat. No. 89- 210M0) $33.50, plus freight. Weight, 39 lb. 13 oz. Width of cut, 18 in. Free-reel cutter. Steel end plates. Reel runs on ball bearings. Wheels on steel shafts with bronze sleeve bearings. Rear roller, one-piece, rubber covered. Bed knife adjusted by opposing nuts on eye bolts. Cutting height adjustment (J^ to 2x/i in.) in three ranges, low, medium, and high. To change from one
range to another required changing location of wheel shafts. Adjustment within each range was provided for by raising or lowering rear roller, secured by large hand-operated knobs. The mower had guards to help prevent the grass from winding around the ends of the reel (very desirable). Lacked provision for attaching grass catcher. Cuts per foot, 9. Protection of gears against dirt and grass clippings, good. Adjustment ol blades as received, fairly good. Rear roller shaft of the mower tested was considerably off center at one end, causing undesirable up-and-down movement of about x/i in. The mower was relatively easy to push, and quiet in operation. Grass-cutting ability after adjustment, good. This mower was similar to the Silent Yard-Man.
B. Intermediate Craftsman (Sears Cat. No. 99-8129) $32.47,
plus freight. Weight, 36 lb. 1 oz. Width of cut, 18 in. Free-reel cutter. Steel end plates. Reel runs in sealed ball bearings. Wheels on steel shafts with bronze sleeve bearings. Rear roller, one-piece, plastic covered. Bed knife adjusted by opposing nuts on eye bolts, but it was very difficult to obtain a proper adjustment. Cutting height adjustment (Yi to 2 in.) in three ranges, low, medium, and high. To change from one range to another required changing location of wheel shafts. Adjustment within each range obtained by raising or lowering rear roller, by means of quick-release levers (a good feature). Bed knife was reinforced (a good feature). Cuts per foot, 9. Protection of gears against dirt and grass
Pennsylvania Great American 2416
Silent Yard-Man 1000-3 "Whispering" Garden Mark
Craftsman Cat. No. 99-8129 Fleetwheel 1032 Turfmaster DeLuxe MTA
clippings, good. Adjustment of blades as received, only fair. Relatively easy to push, and quiet in operation. Grass-cutting ability after adjustment, only fair.
Craftsman (Sears Cat. No. 99-8123) $16.49,
plus freight; current Cat. No. 99-7975 at $15.99, plus freight, appears to be the same. Weight, 33 lb. 8 oz. Width of cut, 15% in. Cast-iron end plates. Reel runs on ball bearings. Wheels on cast-iron shafts in cast-iron bearings. Rear roller, one-piece, wood. Bed knife adjusted by opposing screws. Cutting height adjustment to 1^ in. -insufficient) was provided for by changing height of rear roller. Cuts per foot, 11. Protection of gears against dirt and grass clippings, poor. Adjustment of blades as received, only fair. The mower was relatively hard to push and somewhat noisy in operation. Grass-cutting ability after adjustment, only fair. ^Similar to Fleetwheel 1032.
Pennsylvania Great American, Model 2416 (Pennsylvania Mower Div., American Chain & Cable Co., Inc., Exeter, Pa.) $36.95. Weight, 47 lb. 12 oz. Width of cut, 16 in. Cast-iron end plates. Reel runs on ball bearings. Wheels on steel shafts with cast-iron bearings. Rear roller, three-piece wood. Bed knife adjusted by opposing screws. Cutting height adjustment (% to 2l/i in.) was provided for by changing height of rear roller. Cuts per foot, 10. Protection of gears against dirt and grass clippings, fairly good. Adjustment of blades as received, only fair. The mower was harder than average to push. Fairly quiet in
operation. Grass-cutting ability after adjustment, fairly good.
Fleetwheel, Model 1032 (Wards Cat. No. 89-204) $17.95, plus freight; current Cat. No. 89-208 at $18.95, plus freight, appears to be the same. Weight, 33 lb. 9 oz. Width of cut, 15% in. Cast-iron end plates. Reel runs on ball bearings. Wheels on cast-iron shafts in cast-iron bearings. Rear roller, one-piece, wood. Bed knife adjusted by opposing screws. Cutting height adjustment (% to 1-7/16 in.-insufficient) provided for by changing height of rear roller. Cuts per toot, 11. Protection of gears against dirt and grass clippings, poor. Adjustment of blades as received, only fair. The mower was relatively hard to push, and rather noisy. Grass-cutting ability after adjustment, only fair. Wery similar to Sears Craftsman Cat. No. 99-8123.
Turfmaster DeLuxe, Model MTA (Dille & McGuire Mfg. Co., Richmond, Ind.) About $25. Weight, 42 lb. 2 oz. Width of cut, 16 in. Cast-iron end plates. Reel runs on ball bearings. Wheels on cast-iron shafts in cast-iron bearings. Rear roller, one-piece, rubber covered. Bed knife adjusted by opposing screws. Cutting height adjustment (3/4 to 1 1/8 in.-insufficient) was provided for by changing height of rear roller. Lacked provision for attaching grass catcher. Cuts per foot, 10. Protection of gears against dirt and grass clippings, satisfactory. Adjustment of blades as received, only fair. Mower was relatively hard to push and rather noisy. Grass-cutting ability after adjustment, fairly good.
Those pesky moths (and beetles, too)
In the spring, homemakers customarily put the family's woolen and part-woolen garments and wool blankets into suitable containers for storage, where they will stay until the coming of fall and winter months. Most women take some steps to protect these stored woolens from damage by insects. Although the clothes moth is commonly considered the chief enemy of clothing, woolens are subject to damage from another common kind of insect, too, the carpet beetle. Studies by entomologists show that carpet beetles cause more damage to woolens in homes than clothes moths. The larvae of carpet beetles will eat certain synthetic fabrics, too, especially if the fabrics have been soiled with food.
Housewives who want to do the best job, and do it the easiest way, will be glad to know that one of the most satisfactory techniques that homemakers can employ for protecting their woolens from fabric pests is simply to send the woolens to be stored to a professional dry cleaner and thereafter to protect them by a sealed heavy paper wrapping or sturdy plastic bag or a tape-sealed cardboard box. (The insects can get through ordinary loose-fibered paper and thin plastic films.) If the packing is properly done, and if breeding places for insects in the home are cleaned up, there may be no need to use any so-called mothproofing chemical. (Cautious housewives may still want to include in the packages paradichlorobenzene or naphthalene to catch those moths that may sneak in or be hatched from eggs already deposited in the clothing.)
Naphthalene and paradichlorobenzene are effective in killing both clothes moths and carpet beetles if the woolens are kept in a container that is sufficiently airtight to allow a lethal concentration of fumes to build up. In a home where temperatures are normally above 70°F, such a concentration may be reached when about a pound of the chemical crystals, flakes, or balls is used in a tight trunk-size storage chest, or about one pound per 100 cubic feet is used in a tightly sealed closet. Paradichlorobenzene, the popular moth-control crystals widely sold in stores, is
unpleasant to breathe and its fumes are definitely poisonous.
"Residual" insecticides (such as DDT, which is effective against moths, and chlordane and lindane, which are effective against both moths and carpet beetles) may be useful but they, like other toxic chemicals, must be used carefully and accurately, with due consideration of the fact that some people have a high and very troublesome degree of sensitivity to various common insecticides. The commercial insecticide is applied sparingly with a brush, not by spraying, to surfaces where larvae and adult insects are likely to crawl. When the brushed-on coating dries, a thin deposit of the insecticide remains. (Do not by any means leave the brush or container where a child may have access to it, or handle it.) Not all the insects or larvae may happen to pick up a lethal dose in their travels across treated surfaces, but some will.
One of the least objectionable spray moth killers, according to a leading allergist, Dr. Theron Randolph, is Aerosect (made by Pennsylvania Engineering Co., 1119-21 N. Howard St., Philadelphia 23). Its base is pyrethrum extract and sesame oil, with the relatively safe Freon 11 and Freon 12 as propellants. It is a "contact" spray which kills moths and larvae which it hits. Do not spray near open flame or electrical circuits or hot surfaces, and do not spray clothing, which may become spotted.
Impregnating any clothing or bedding materials with chemicals is effective, but introduces dangers of poisoning through skin contact and in other ways. Furthermore, woolens treated with an insecticide (chlordane or lindane, for example) must be dry cleaned after storage, as well as before, making the method relatively troublesome and expensive. (Home laundering will not be an adequate means of getting all the chemical material out of the fabric.) The method of impregnating a cloth with chemicals is ruled out completely for garments and blankets used by or accessible to infants and small children, who may suck and chew on the cloth.
(Concluded on page 28)
Small portable vise
The Vacu Vise is a small portable vise that can be fastened by suction to any smooth, non-porous surface. The base of the vise is a sheet of rubber, the center of which can be raised by motion of a lever, thereby creating a vacuum if the edges of the rubber are first pressed into tight contact with a suitable surface.
When the rubber was moistened with water before setting the Vacu Vise in place, the device held firmly for several days on smooth linoleum, metal, or laminated plastic surfaces. Without moistening, the holding time was only about 10 to 30 minutes.
It was judged that the Vacu Vise would be handy for some apartment dwellers and others who may have some need for a vise, but have no convenient place to mount one permanently, and would not wish to disfigure a work table or other article of furniture by drilling holes for bolts to hold a regular vise in position. However, the device was rather small, and its size, of course, would impose a limitation on the jobs that could be handled with it.
A. Recommended Vacu Vise Portable Vise (General Slicing Machine Co., Inc., Walden, N.Y.) S6.95, postpaid within U.S. Also sold in department stores. Jaws, 2]/2 in. wide. Maximum opening, about 2x/i in- Movable jaw had "V" grooves to facilitate holding round stock in either a horizontal or vertical position. Small anvil, about % x ]/% in. Rubber holding pad on base, about 4 x 5 in. Over-all height of vise, 4 in. Weight, 4 lb. Held satisfactorily and with sufficient force to smooth, non-porous surfaces when the rim of the rubber base was moistened before applying. Suitable only for holding fairly small work pieces.
Valuable pamphlet on chemicals in foods
An interesting 16-page pamphlet on the protection of consumers' health as related to the foods and beverages we consume is being distributed by the Federation of Homemakers, which has its general office at 922 N. Stuart St., Arlington, Va. Membership, $3 a year.
This well-written compilation of useful information and data discloses the great multiplicity of the chemical food additives used (over 3000), their toxicity, the mass experiment in human health by use of many additives and pesticides, the known increases of certain serious diseases that may be related to food ingredients, the special danger of toxic materials for young children, the attitude of the Food and Drug Administration toward problems of chemicals and additives in and on foods. The pamphlet refers to the F.D.A.'s willingness to accept the "politically possible" in spite of the potentialities of life-long dangers
to health of consumers through mistakes in official judgments, and the risk of increase of illness and deaths from degenerative diseases (such as heart disease, cancer, diabetes, diseases of the liver).
The pamphlet discusses the uncertainties involved in the government's announced tolerances on pesticide residues, the grave dangers implicit in upsetting the balance of nature. A bibliography of 48 reference sources is included. The pamphlet, which gives in convenient form much information on the problems discussed that is not otherwise accessible to consumers studying the subject of food chemicals and their control by state and Federal officials, is available at a charge of 35 cents from Mrs. M. H. Robinson, member of the Federation's Board. Mrs. Robinson's address is 10120 Chapel Road, Potomac, Md.
Lark Custom V-8
Several important design changes have been made which make the Lark a much better car than the 1962 model. The new Lark is judged a good car.
The Lark is the only compact to use separate body and frame construction. Front and rear fenders are bolted on for easy repair.
The instrument panel is well designed, and safety padding is standard equipment. There were no protruding knobs in front of front-seat passengers. Controls were well identified and illuminated. Gauges and meters were used instead of indicating lights (the gauges are very desirable).
The entire glove compartment is hinged at the bottom and drops down to a horizontal position; a good design which did not present any evident hazard in the event of a collision. Studebaker is the only manufacturer at the present time to provide anchorages for rear-seat lap belts, use of which is desirable for rear-seat passengers.
Headroom, leg room, and foot room were adequate in both the front and the rear. Ease of entry and exit was good in the front and the rear. (Doors were wide and floors were flat, without any step-down.)
Engine components and accessories except oil and fuel-line filters are readily accessible for servicing. The oil and fuel-line filters are only fair in this respect; they must be replaced from below.
Heater and defroster performed satisfactorily, with fan noise moderate at high-speed setting. Windshield wipers were of the parallel-acting type and gave good coverage.
The crankcase ventilating system (antismog device) required servicing every 10,000 miles. Chassis lubrication is recommended every 3000 miles, oil change every 4000 miles, and oil filter every 4000 miles or 6 months.
Model tested and price
Lark Custom V-8 4-door sedan with automatic transmission and power steering.
Posted price, $2868.06, itemized as follows:
Manufacturer's suggested list price $2420.00
"Flite-O-Matic" transmission 209.50
Power steering 80.50
Padded dash, electric wipers,
15-inch wheels, cigar lighter, standard
"vanity" padded glove compartment equipment
Performance (see table, page 18, for data)
Acceleration was very good, more than adequate for the average driver. Gasoline mileage was below average for a car of this size.
The self-adjusting brakes were satisfactory in operation. A dual hydraulic braking system with "tandem" master cylinder is used (very desirable). Front disk brakes are optional at about $100 extra.
The parking brake had good holding power both forward and reverse. It was of the hand-operated type with "T" handle located to the right of the steering column and could be used as an emergency brake if necessary.
Riding and handling qualities
The riding quality was satisfactory on all types of roads. Spring action was slightly stiffer than on some other cars, a quality which is desirable for dependable steering and safety. The car handled, cornered, and parked well. There was some leaning of the body on sharp curves, but this was not considered enough to be objectionable.
The shift sequence, P-N-D-L-R, of the automatic transmission was not one which is desirable from a safety standpoint. (The shift lever has to be shifted through drive and low in order to get in reverse gear.) A larger rear-view mirror would be desirable, to provide adequate rear vision. Taillights cannot be seen from the sides.
Trunk had a high sill, about 83^ inches above the floor, making loading and unloading somewhat difficult.
Rambler Ambassador V-8
This year the Ambassador is essentially a deluxe model of the Classic. The Ambassador has a 250-horsepower V-8 engine and is priced $275 to $311 above the Classic 6 or $170 to $205 above the Classic with a V-8 198-horsepower engine (recently made available as optional equipment). In general, a very satisfactory car.
Exterior and interior dimensions of the Ambassador are essentially the same as the Classic. For comments on headroom, leg room, ease of entry and exit, etc., see report on the Classic in the December 1962 Consumer Bulletin. The push-button system for selecting the gears on the automatic transmission has been dropped and replaced by a lever mounted on the steering column. The sequence, P-R-N-D2-D1-L, is satisfactory from a safety standpoint. Engine components and accessories except distributor and oil filter were readily accessible for servicing.
Performance (see table, page 18, for data)
Acceleration was very fast and more than adequate, only slightly slower than the very fast Tempest V-8, but compared to the Tempest its gasoline economy was poor (lowest miles per gallon of any compact tested).
The power brakes were very good (fast acting). For other comments, see Classic 6 (December 1962 Consumer Bulletin).
Riding and handling qualities
In this respect, essentially the same as Classic 6. The power steering was satisfactory, and the driver's feel of the road was good.
Model tested and price
Rambler Ambassador 990 V-8 4-door sedan with automatic transmission, power brakes, and power steering.
Posted price, $3435.20, itemized as follows:
Manufacturer's suggested retail price $2660.00
"Flashomatic" automatic transmission 219.50
Power brakes 43.95
Power steering 81.20
Twin-grip differential 42.70
AM radio (front and rear speakers) 77.25
White sidewall tires 31.40
Reclining front seats 25.50
Two-tone paint 19.95
Mirror package 10.25
Courtesy-light package 19.60
Windshield washer 11.95
"Dowgard" anti-freeze 6.25
Rambler American 220
judged a good car of its type for a small family who want the utmost in economy both in purchase price and cost of operation.
The standard engine for the models 220 and 230 is a 90-horsepower L-head six. A 125-horsepower overhead-valve six is available as optional equipment for the 220 and 330, but is standard equipment on the 440.
The Rambler American was relatively easy to enter in the front but not in the rear. Leg room, headroom, and foot room were adequate in the front; headroom and leg room were not adequate in the rear.
The hip room available in the rear seat is about 12 inches less than that of most compacts, and thus the car will seat only two people in comfort; it must be considered a 5- rather than a 6-passenger car.
Instruments and controls were well identified, but only the instrument cluster was illuminated.
The heater and defroster provided adequate heat, with moderate fan noise at high speed. Engine components and accessories except generator were readily accessible for servicing.
The positive crankcase ventilator (antismog) device requires servicing every 8000 miles. Chassis lubrication is recommended for every 2000 miles, oil and filter change every 4000 miles.
Performance (see table, page 18, for data)
Acceleration was adequate. In the 0-60 miles-per-hour range it was as fast as the much higher-priced compacts Buick Special and Oldsmobile F-85. Gasoline mileage was good.
The "double-safety" self-adjusting brake mechanism, which had a separate braking system for front and rear wheels (very desirable), gave satisfactory and quick braking action. The parking brake had satisfactory holding power both forward and reverse. It was of the "T"-handle hand-operated pull-out type located to the left of the steering column and could be used as an emergency brake if necessary.
Riding and handling qualities
The car gave a good ride on roads in good to moderately good condition. On rough roads, the ride was somewhat stiff (not undesirable, since "soft" riding qualities do not favor best road-holding and dependably accurate steering)-
Cornering ability was good. The driver's feel of the road was good. The car was easy to park and steer.
Indicating lights instead of the more desirable meter and gauge were used to indicate generator operation and oil pressure. The dropdown door of the glove compartment presents a possible hazard in the event of a collision. Taillights were not well protected by the bumper, and were not readily visible from the side. Rear-view mirror was too small for
Model tested and price
Rambler American 220 4-door sedan with manual transmission.
Posted price, $2096.35, itemized as follows:
Manufacturer's suggested list price $1895.00
White sidewall tires 28.00
Left outside rear-view mirror 3.95
"Dowgard" anti-freeze 4.25
adequate vision. Body was not well finished (there were rough edges that could cut hands in washing or cleaning).
ludged a good car, with better workmanship and over-all quality control than last year's model.
Model tested and price
Valiant V-100 4-door sedan with automatic transmission and power steering.
Posted price, $2355.90, itemized as follows:
Manufacturer's suggested retail price $1973.00
"TorqueFlite" automatic transmission 171.55
Power steering 73.00
The standard engine is rated at 101 horsepower, but an optional 145-horsepower engine, which is essentially the Plymouth 6 engine, is available at $47.35 extra.
The dual headlights used last year have
(Continued on page 19)
Piston displacement, cu. in.
Maximum torque, lb.-ft.......
Cooling system capacity, qt...
Lark Custom V-8
V-8 259 40.6 180 at 4500 260 at 2800
8.5 to 1
Rambler Ambassador 990 V-8
V-8, overhead valves 327
51.2 250 at 4700 340 at 2600
8.7 to 1 19
6-in-line, "L" head 196
23.4 90 at 3800 160 at 1600
8.0 to 1 12
6-in-line, overhead valves 170
27.7 101 at 4400 155 at 2400
8.2 to 1
BODY AND CHASSIS SPECIFICATIONS
Type.......................... box-section frame
Wheelbase, in................. 113
Over-all length, in........... 188
Maximum width, in............. 71
Maximum height, in............ 55.8
Tires......................... 2-ply 6.50 x 15
Rear axle ratio:
Gear ratios, overall
1st........................... 7.89 7.37
2nd................. 4.76 4.51
3rd........................... 3.07 3.07
Brake area, sq. in............ 173.0
Turning diameter, ft.......... 39.0
Minimum road clearance, in.. 5.9
Steering turns, right to left
Usable trunk space, cu. ft.... 1 3.6
Battery....................... 1 2-v 50-amp.-hr.
Gas tank capacity, gal........ 18
Gasoline recom. by mfr........ Regular
Weight, taxable, lb........... 3010
unit body frame 112 189 71
55.3 2-ply 7.50 x 14
1 2-v 60-amp.-hr.
unit body frame 100 173 70 56.1
2-ply 6.00 x 1 5
1 2-v 50-amp.-hr. 20 Regular 2485
unit body frame 106 186 70
53.4 2-ply 6.50 x 1 3
12-v 38-amp.-hr. 18 Regular 2535
Speedometer (at 50 m.p.h.), . Odometer...................
0 to 60 m.p.h., sec.....
20 to 50 m.p.h., sec.....
40 to 60 m.p.h., sec.....
Fuel consumption, m.p.g. at a constant speed of 50 m.p.h.t
approx. 5% fast§ approx. 4% fast
approx. 3% fast approx. 3% fast
approx. 4% fast approx. 4% fast
approx. 5% fast approx. 2% fast
Piston displacement per mile*
Standard shift............. 305
Automatic shift........... 305
Percent overload on tires
t In Mrmafdrivingl'the^miles per gallon should be between seven tenths (0.7) and nine tenths (0.9) of the figures given here. ** 5 percent or less, t Early production cars had a 3.23 to 1 ratio.
§ Ona secondZ-arfe Custom tested, speedometer and odometer errors were 10% and 7% fast, respectively.
been dropped in favor of single headlights. CR believes that two good headlights are better than four mediocre ones.
Front fenders are bolted on (desirable). The car was relatively easy to enter and leave at the front but somewhat difficult at the rear. Headroom, leg room, and foot room were satisfactory in the front but headroom and leg room were inadequate in the rear.
Arrangement and identification of dashboard controls were satisfactory. Engine components and accessories except distributor and oil filter were readily accessible for servicing; distributor and oil filter were only fair in this respect.
The TorqueFlite transmission was operated by push buttons (R-N-D-2-1) arranged in a vertical row on the left side of the dash. There was a separate park position lever to the left of the push buttons. In general, we consider push buttons not as desirable from a safety standpoint as a shift lever with the shift positions in the proper sequence.
Heater and defroster performed well, but the heater fan was very noisy at high speed.
The crankcase ventilating system (antismog device) requires checking and cleaning of valve every 6 months.
Like the rest of the Chrysler line, the Valiant has a 5-year/50,000-mile warranty for the "power train components" in addition to the regular warranty.
Performance (see table, page 18, for data)
Acceleration, for a car with a 101-horsepower engine, was relatively slow, although it would be adequate, we believe, for most drivers. The acceleration was slightly faster than the Dart 6 with the same horsepower engine. Gasoline mileage was very good.
Recent Reprints from
Title Bulletin issue No. of pases Price (stamps acceptable)
Ice cream-What is it? July '62 3 15c
Don't be reckless in use of
pesticides! Nov. '62 4 15c
Human susceptibility to the chemical environment- review of book by Theron
G. Randolph, M.D. Feb. '63 2 10c
The self-adjusting service brakes were satisfactory in operation. The parking brakes were satisfactory for holding the car against forward motion but more holding power would be desirable to prevent the car from rolling backwards. The parking brake was of the "T"-handle, hand-operated type located at the left of the steering column, and could be used as an emergency brake if necessary.
Riding and handling qualities
Riding quality of the Valiant was good. (The front suspension is of the torsion-bar type.) On bumpy roads, the ride was not too soft (a fairly firm ride is desirable, and safer). Seats were comfortable, and the car was easy to handle, park, and steer. The driver's feel of the road was good. Cornering was satisfactory, somewhat fast with some leaning of the body (judged not objectionable). Road noise was somewhat above average (the hood was not sound-insulated and the car was not undercoated).
An indicating light was used for oil pressure instead of the more desirable pressure gauge. The drop-down door of the glove compartment was a possible hazard in the event of a collision.
The rear-view mirror was much too small for adequate vision. The spare tire was located in a well under the trunk floor; it was easy to remove, but unloading of the trunk is necessary to obtain access to it. Taillights and back-up lights were not well protected against damage. The taillights were not visible from the sides as they should be for safety.
Consumer Bulletin *
Title Bulletin issue No. of pages Price (stamps acceptable)
Contact lenses (by Purman
Dorman, M.D.) Mar. '63 3 15c
Agricultural chemicals, misused, menace to men and animals Apr. '63 4 15c
Feeding the family dog (staff of Mark Morris Associates, Inc.) May '63 2 10c
* Over 30 earlier reprints are listed on page 35 of the December 1962 issue.
Top-loading washing machine.
Front-loading washing machine.
Automatic washing machines
Before you buy a washing machine, it will pay you to consider the various models available of one or more makes to learn what each will do and which one can serve your needs best. Also compare prices installed and investigate the type of service you can expect, should your machine require adjustment or repairs, as it almost surely will, in time. Each manufacturer offers several models. These may be classified as the economy washers, the "middle-of-the-line" models, and the deluxe.
The first group among the top-loading machines, the so-called economy washers, provide for washing and spinning at only one (normal or fast) speed and a choice of hot or warm water for washing and only warm water for rinsing. On some of the lowest-priced machines, water temperature is not controlled by any automatic mechanism, but must be adjusted by the operator through manipulation of hot- and cold-water taps. Economy washers are suited for washing cotton and linen fabrics but are not well adapted for woolens or the more modern fabrics, such as wash-and-wear cottons and synthetics. Machines in the "middle-of-the-line" group offer two or more cycles for a variety of fabrics, usually three wash-water temperatures (hot, warm, and cold) and two rinse-water temperatures (warm and cold), with normal and gentle agitation and extraction speeds. The variety of speeds and temperatures afford
greater flexibility in operation than do the models in the economy group. The deluxe washers or top-of-the-line models offer more convenience features, such as selection of the entire washing "program" with the push of a button, as well as automatic dispensers for dispensing such laundry aids as bleach and fabric softeners at the correct part of the cycle. List prices for fully-automatic washers range from about $175 for the economy models to about $400 for the deluxe models.
Top loading vs. front loading
Consumers also have a choice between washing machines that wash by agitation (top loading) and those that wash by tumbling (front loading). Each type has certain advantages over the other. With top-loading machines, high-sudsing detergents, which get clothes cleaner, can be used. In machines that wash by tumbling, it is advisable to use only low-sudsing detergents, for excessive suds in the machine will interfere with the tumbling motion to a sufficient degree to impair the washing action.
For best performance of any washer, including a top-loading machine, excessive suds should be avoided by use of no more detergent than necessary.
Front-loading washers do the best job of removing gritty soil, sand, and mud, and lend themselves better to washing large or bulky items, such as blankets, quilts, pillows, spreads, furniture slip covers, throw rugs, and curtains.
If you have low water pressure (below 20 pounds per square inch) or if the pressure of your water supply is likely to be low at times, you should preferably buy a washing machine that is equipped with pressure-controlled filling, which will assure that the correct amount of water enters the tub or basket regardless of the small rate of flow of water. Machines that have time-controlled filling, in which water flows in during a preset time period, may not receive the full amount of water if the supply pressure is abnormally low or too much water may enter if the pressure is very high. With a time-controlled fill, if the water pressure is very low, the clothes might be washed and rinsed in too little water, and if the pressure is too high, water, and more importantly hot water, will be wasted.
To permit lower levels of water in the tub for washing partial or smaller loads, some machines are equipped with a button or switch which, when operated manually, stops the flow of water immediately. This arrangement permits the user to fill the tub to any level desired provided she is willing to stand by to stop the water flow at the proper moment. Some washers have dials that can be preset when the washer is started which stop the flow of water automatically when it reaches the level the dial was set for. The lowest level in most machines with automatic shut-off controls is equivalent to about 3/4 a full tub. Partial fills with machines which fill by time control are obtained by advancing the timer dial manually so that less time is available for filling.
The amounts of hot and cold water used by washing machines for a complete cycle vary with the make. In some localities and some homes, consumption of water can be an important item, particularly as it relates to the hot-water supply. CR found that the water required to wash a full load varied from about 48 gallons of hot and cold water together (34 hot and 14 cold) to a low of about 27 gallons
(19 hot and 8 cold), with an average of about 38 gallons (23 hot, 15 cold). Three washers, the Hamilton, Norge, and Signature (top loading), rinse with cold water instead of warm, when the dial is set for a hot-water wash, and thus used 21, 14, and 11 gallons of hot water, respectively, for the cycle. This arrangement has the advantage that less hot water will be used. A warm-water rinse is possible, if desired, with a warm-water wash or with a change of the setting by the operator after the machine has filled with hot water for washing.
Models with more than one "program" permit the user to wash under a variety of conditions. Every machine has a Normal or Regular cycle for washing cottons and linens. In addition, all but the lowest-priced machines have provisions for shorter cycles, and many machines offer a choice of normal or slow wash and spin speeds. In a wash-and-wear cycle, cool or cold water is run into the tub at the end of the agitation period to lower the temperature of the clothes before the water is extracted from them. The wash-and-wear cycle causes less wrinkling than the normal or regular cycle.
In general, it will be a safe rule to discount any claim made for capacity, since it will almost surely be exaggerated. About half
General Electric's "Mini-Wash" consists of a separate small plastic tub which can be set in place as shown above, on the agitator post. This device makes it possible to wash a few small lightly-soiled items in a small quantity of water.
For convenient loading and unloading, a lint filter of the type shown should be removed. On most washers the filter can be simply lifted off the agitator post, but on the Kelvinator it is necessary to unscrew the knob to remove the filter below it and then replace the filter and screw the knob back into place after loading is completed.
the manufacturers make no claim for capacity, and only one of those who do make such a claim explains how the machine's capacity varies with the type of fabric washed. This was RCA Whirlpool for which the claim "Up to 12 pounds" was based on heavy towels, work clothes, jeans, etc., while the 10-pound
figure was based on normal cottons, shirts, bed linens, etc. Unqualified claims of 12 pounds of washing capacity are inflated, greatly for some makes, and any weight claim is meaningless unless the manufacturer also gives the type of fabric to which it applies. For example, a washer which will handle and wash 8 pounds of cotton and linen fabrics well will take only about 4 to 5 pounds of synthetic fabrics. (The weights given refer to the dry fabrics, of course.)
In CR's tests, normal or "full" loads of cottons without introducing excessive wrinkling and twisting of garments due to crowding varied between 7 and 10 pounds. The 12-pound claim becomes even more absurd when one realizes that most full-sized clothes dryers sold as matching units will handle only about 6 pounds of dry clothes successfully and none more than 8 pounds.
Few people weigh the clothes before they load them into the washer and thus those who perhaps believe they are washing 12 pounds may actually fill the tub with loads weighing 6 to 8 pounds, and so not much above the true capacity of their machines.
Those manufacturers of washing machines
PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF
Brand of washer Full load cottons, lb. Top or front loading Pressure-or time-controlled fill Over-all dimensions*, in. Actions j stopped by opening of lid or door
Claimed ' Measured Width Depth Height
Includes door or lid in open position plus distance needed for water and drain hose connections.
who refrain from a capacity claim generally recommend filling the tub loosely to the brim, which is practical and realistic.
Filters to catch lint
Most of the lint filters collected threads but not lint and thus demonstrated little value. Some were completely ineffective unless the level of the water was near the top of the tub and the washer was operated on normal or fast agitation. Even with the best of filters, which removed some lint, i.e., those used by Kenmore and RCA Whirlpool, dark pieces washed with white articles will often show bits of lint and fuzz. The type of filter which uses a screen positioned on the agitator shaft may remove threads from the wash water but will not be as effective as one would wish in removing fine lint. Besides, such a screen can interfere with loading and unloading the tub unless it is removed temporarily.
A washing machine should be as safe, electrically and mechanically, as it is possible to make it, and as one important precaution should in every case be securely grounded
electrically by using the 3-prong power-cord plug on the washer with a 3-slot receptacle, as intended. Don't use the adapter supplied with some washers that permits connecting to a 2-slot receptacle. Safe design is especially important for a machine used in a home where there are small children. The machine should be free of electrical leakage that might cause the operator to receive a shock when touching the washer, and it should be as nearly as possible free from certain mechanical hazards, such as a tub that spins for more than a few seconds after the washer is shut off or a tub that continues to spin at full speed, as some do, unfortunately, when the lid is raised. The on-off switch should preferably be one that stops the machine's operation completely when the knob or dial is pushed in and starts its action when it is pulled out. With the pushing motion, it is possible to shut off the motor quickly if it becomes necessary to do so in an emergency.
Spinning smaller loads
Automatic washing machines present no particular problem during the spin when the tub contains a full or nearly full load of clothes
AUTOMATIC WASHING MACHINES
Pushing dial stops machine? Has off- balance switch? Hose couplings made of brass? Time for full cycle, min. Water used for regular cycle, gal. Water left in clothes, percent
Hot-wash alone Hot- total Cold- total Brand of washer
that is well distributed, but few machines can spin at reasonably fast speeds with off-balance loads (Philco, Signature Imperial, and Westing-house were best in this respect). Some are equipped with an off-balance switch which when hit by the wobbling tub shuts off the machine and thus stops the spinning. When the load is redistributed by the housewife and the off-balance switch reset, the tub will spin at full speed. On most machines which do not have the off-balance switch, the tub will continue to spin but at slower-than-normal speeds and will likely wobble enough to hit the outside casing; in extreme cases, the washer is likely to "walk." There could be serious damage to the machine and surroundings if the wobbling action became severe enough.
When a tub spins at a slow speed, its effectiveness in removing water from the clothes is, of course, reduced. In view of this, and the possibility of the damage that can be done by a "walking" machine, CR feels that unless the washer is designed to handle unbalanced loads and spin at relatively fast speeds without the inner tub's striking the outer tub, it should be equipped with an off-balance switch or some other provision for shutting off the washer whenever an off-balance condition is present.
Investigate the availability and quality of the service you can expect to get in your area
Lids that cannot be raised completely will interfere with loading and unloading, particularly with large pieces such as bed sheets, The Norge and Signature (top-loading) washers have such lids, as shown on the Norge machine in the background.
before buying any make of washing machine.
The best washing machine, like any mechanical-electrical appliance, is likely to develop troubles and require repairs; breakdowns are particularly likely to occur with washers, indeed. It is important that a competent serviceman can be obtained who can make the necessary repairs promptly. Even though the failure may be of a minor nature, prompt and reasonably priced service is a necessity. If the serviceman is not able to diagnose anti correct the trouble properly, a series of service calls may be necessary, each one involving a charge for service and labor and possibly parts. In this field, there is no such thing, practically speaking, as service for which no charge, or only a nominal charge, is made. If the machine chosen is one for which service must be obtained from a considerable distance, long delays must be expected and service calls are almost certain to be very costly (for time and travel).
The going price for a particular model of washing machine may vary by $100 or more depending on the area in which the machine is bought, the dealer, and whether the price includes installation and warranty.
Certainly you should shop around for the lowest price, but, more important, check to be sure it includes delivery, installation to existing outlets for water and electricity, and the complete warranty. You may find the so-called lowest price is not so low when the machine is installed-or when it needs repair.
Prices given in the listings are approximate, but they reflect the average normal or going prices and include delivery, installation, and warranty.
General Electric, Model 1WA850X1 (General Electric Co., Appliance Park, Louisville, Ky.) $225. Model 1WA950X1 with "Mini-Wash," $250. Performance in washing up to 9 to 10 lb., good. Lint filter was effective in collecting threads at all water levels (see text). "Mini-Wash" makes possible the washing of a few small items, such as stockings or lingerie, in a small quantity of water. Brake stopped tub in about 5 sec. (good).
Kenmore 70, Model 110.6304701 (Sears Cat. No. W26-3470N) $215, plus shipping. Performance
in washing up to 9 lb., very good. Washer has self-cleaning lint filter effective in removing lint at all levels of water. The Kenmore may be considered to have one disadvantage in that the user will need to take care not to turn on the washer when the dial knob is set between the "Off" position on the dial and the beginning of "Normal Cycle," where the washer starts to fill. If this rule is not followed, the washer will agitate the clothes up to 4 min. without water in the tub. Advancing the knob far enough into the "Normal Cycle" range from the "Off" position before starting the machine by use of the dial knob avoids this problem. Brake stopped tub in about 5 sec. (good).
Maytag, Model A700 (The Maytag Co., Newton, Iowa) $290 (includes Maytag's "Red Carpet Service" which has been found to be efficient and reliable). Performance in washing up to 8 lb., very good. Lint filter was not found effective. Machine has extra long drain hose and long electric power cord. Brake stopped tub in about 5 sec. (good).
Norge, Model 232-380-0 (Norge Sales Corp., Merchandise Mart Plaza, Chicago 54) $230. Per-
formance in washing up to 7 lb., good. Lint filter was effective in collecting threads when water level in tub approached full. Washer has good, fast brake action, stopping the tub within 3 sec. (a valuable safeguard). This model provides only a cold-water rinse with hot-water wash setting (see text). Lid does not open fully and so can interfere somewhat with unloading large items, such as sheets.
RCA Whirlpool Imperial, Model LKA890-0 (Whirlpool Corp., Benton Harbor, Mich.) $250. Performance in washing up to 10 lb., very good. Lint filter was effective in removing lint at all levels of water. The RCA Whirlpool may be considered to have one disadvantage in that the user will need to take care not to turn on the washer when the dial knob is set between the "Off" position and beginning of "Super Wash" on the "Normal Cycle," where the washer starts to fill (so as to avoid agitating clothes up to 2% min. without water in the tub). Advancing the knob far enough into the "Super Wash" range from the "Off" position before starting the machine with the dial knob avoids this problem. Brake stopped tub in about 5 sec. (good).
Signature Imperial, Model UAN-6831-C (Wards Cat. No. 85-6831R) $218, plus shipping. Performance in washing up to 7 lb. judged satisfactory for a front-loading machine, though the Imperial did not wash as well as most agitator washers do with high-sudsing detergents. Had no lint filter.
With the Kenmore 70, care should be taken not to start the machine if the dial is set, as shown above, so that the indicator (marked A) is between the two arrows. With this incorrect setting, the washer will agitate the dry clothes for a period as long as 4 minutes, depending on the setting. Water will not begin to enter until the dial advances to the beginning of the normal cycle. Dry agitation can tear the clothes and should, of course, be avoided. A similar incorrect setting is possible with the RCA Whirlpool washer.
Signature, Model LNC-6522F (Wards Cat. No. 85- 6522R) $188, plus shipping. Performance in
washing up to 7 lb., good. Lint filter was effective in collecting threads when tub was nearly full. Although length of filling time can be extended to 6 min., washer would not be suitable for use with very low water pressures. Washer provides only a cold-water rinse at the hot-water wash setting (see text). Lid does not open fully and so can interfere somewhat with unloading large items, such as sheets.
Westinghouse, Model LCD30SW1 (Westinghouse Electric Corp., Mansfield, Ohio) $230. Performance in washing up to 7 lb. judged satisfactory for a front-loading machine (though its effectiveness was below that of most agitator washers used with high-sudsing detergents). Had no lint filter.
Blackstone, Model WAD-72 (Blackstone Corp., Jamestown, N.Y.) $230. Performance in washing up to 8 lb., very good. Lint filter was not effective. Tub continued to spin when lid was
A water hose coupling, if made of steel and connected to a bronze or other copper alloy faucet, could become badly rusted in a relatively short time and need to be replaced long before replacement should be necessary. Contact of two dissimilar metals in water connections is not recommended because of the accelerated corrosion that is likely to occur. The price of a replacement hose is about $3.
raised. This washer would not be suitable for use with low water pressures.
Easy, Model ABL (Easy Appliance Div., The Murray Corp. of America, 128 Spencer St., Syracuse 3) $200. Performance in washing up to 7 lb., fair to good. Lint filter was not effective. Machine handled off-balance load well. Washer used least amount of water (27 gal.) for lull load of all tested in this series. Brake stopped tub in about 5 sec. (good).
Hamilton, Model 4T3 (Hamilton Mfg. Co., Two Rivers, Wis.) $240. Performance in washing up to 8 lb., good. Lint filter was effective in collecting threads when tub was full. This washer was not found suitable for use with low water pressures. Washer provides only a cold-water rinse at the hot-water wash setting (see text). Excessive leakage current in CR's test.
Kelvinator, Model W-721 (Appliance Div., American Motors Corp., Detroit 32) $240. Performance in washing up to 7 lb., fair to good. Lint filter was effective in collecting threads when tub was full. Tub continued to spin when lid was raised, and the washer would not be suitable for use with low water pressures.
Philco, Model W-234 (Philco Corp., Subsidiary of Ford Motor Co., Philadelphia 22) $230. Per-
formance in washing up to 9 lb., good. Lint filter was effective in collecting threads at higher water levels. Drain hose, water hoses, and electric power cord were relatively short in length. Washer
tended to tangle clothes when overloaded. Machine lacked provision for stopping tub when lid was opened during spin.
Speed Queen, Model A44-F (Speed Queen, Div. of McGraw-Edison Co., Ripon, Wis.) $289. Performance in washing up to 8 lb., good. Lint filter was not effective. Although the filling time on the Speed Queen is controlled by the timer, the water inlet valve adjusted reasonably well to low water pressures by an increase in the rate of flow of the water. However, the tub did not fill sufficiently for a full load of clothes when the water pressure was very low. Machine lacked provision for stopping tub when the lid was opened during spin.
Frigidaire, Model W1A-63 (Frigidaire Div., General Motors Corp., 300 Taylor St., Dayton 1, Ohio) $280. Performance in washing up to 8 lb., good, except that clothes became tangled. Had no lint filter. Washer would not be suitable for use with low water pressures. Requires separate branch circuit with 15-amp. time-delay fuse. Excessive suds in this machine caused overloading of the motor.
C. Not Recommended
Hotpoint, Model LW385 (Hotpoint, Div. of General Electric Co., 5600 W. Taylor St., Chicago 44) Washer failed in CR's test for electrical safety.
Walkie-talkie kits useful in many ways
(The beginning of this article is on page 43)
Had we also tested walkie-talkie sets, which sell for from $60 to $100 or more per unit, we would perhaps have been more critical of the $10 Knight-Kit, for it certainly has its limitations and several disadvantages by comparison, but it did work, and more than lived up to the claims made for it.
Recommended for fun and limited utility
Knight-Kit C-100 Walkie-Talkie Kit (Allied Radio Corp., 100 N. Western Ave., Chicago 80) $9.95, plus postage; 2 for $18.88, plus postage, until June 30, 1963. Weight of each transceiver, 8 oz. with battery. Case, 2in. wide, 1/2 in. high, in. deep. Telescoping antenna extends 36 in. Uses one 9-volt radio battery (20c to 70c). Three
transistors. Printed circuit. Transmitter frequency, crystal controlled. The super-regenerative receiver is pre-tuned (non-selective) and covers the whole Citizens Band. (The superheterodyne receivers in the far more expensive transceivers, which employ 8 to 10 transistors or more, are crystal controlled and usually can be tuned to any one of the 23 channels in the Citizens Band.) As a result, other stations on the air with higher power may be received by the sensitive Knight-Kit receiver and they may prevent reception from a Knight-Kit transmitter. Thus, the receiver has definite disadvantages in urban and suburban areas. However, it is often interesting to listen to those other stations. In country districts, the problem of interference w^ould usually not be an important one. The audio quality of voice transmissions was very good.
"Extended" warranties and service contracts
Consumers are understandably confused by appliance manufacturers' programs that are supposed to give consumers a better break
The consumer who plans to buy an automatic washer or other major appliance today is likely to be presented with a new sales appeal-the "extended" warranty. Appliance makers, following the lead of automobile manufacturers, are extending their warranties -one, at least, Amana to a five-year period. The matter is of particular importance to the buyer of an automatic washer, since washers usually require more service and repairs than any other major appliance used in today's home.
Norge and Philco are two large manufacturers who are promoting "two-year" warranties for automatic washers. The Norge plan includes a warranty to the customer to repair without charge anything (except light bulbs) that goes wrong with the appliance within one year. The consumer may buy (usually for about $10) a second-year service contract which also covers both parts and labor-in effect, "extends" the first year's warranty by one year. The Philco warranty is on all parts of the appliance (except light bulbs) and runs for a 24-month period, but it does not include service or labor costs. A service contract (about $9) may be obtained from the Philco dealer.
Although "extended warranties" are new, service contracts covering second and/or successive years' service have been offered for a good many years. Sears maintains a nationwide service operation with prices for contracts which vary from appliance to appliance and from market to market. General Electric, too, has made service contracts available through all of its company-owned service operations for some time. Service contracts are also offered by many independent distributors and dealers. Usually the contracts cover both parts and service for a specified period.
Typical charges for second-year service contracts on automatic washers (usually covering parts and labor) were quoted in an article
in Home Furnishings Daily, in December 1962, as:
General Electric, $19.95 and $23.95
Norge, $9.95 to $11.95
Philco, service only, $8.50 (no extra for parts) Sears, $24 and $25; third year, $30 Wards, $24.95
Westinghouse Laundromat, $29.95; parts only, $14.95
Inspection to determine whether the appliance qualifies for service insurance was said usually to be charged for at about the same rate as a service call.
The charges for service contracts increase as the appliance gets older; thus the one-year service contract charges for a General Electric automatic washer in a metropolitan area in the eastern part of the country ranged from $21.45 for a 1961-62 model to $39.95 for a 1956-57 model. Assuming that the cost of a contract increases by about the same amount each year, regardless of model, as seems probable, the charges for service policies on an automatic washer over a 5-year period might be expected to be about $140 ($28 a year).
A discerning reader of Consumer Bulletin points out that the consumer who takes advantage of all the service contracts available may spend better than $550 over a 5-year period for servicing the seven major appliances in his home. His calculations, based on charges for contracts in his city, are:
SERVICE CONTRACT CHARGES FOR ELECTRIC APPLIANCES
Cost for 5 yr., starting with a 1-yr.-old machine Cost of 6th yr.
Refrigerator-freezer $72.70 $21.00
Dishwasher 100.75 25.75
Garbage disposer 37.80 11.95
Automatic washer 140.20 39.95
Clothes dryer 71.25 18.75
Room air conditioner 58.75 20.50
Range, with timer 71.85 17.55
Total $553.30 $155.45
For the convenience of our readers, we have
Brand First year coverage Includes labor? Additional years' coverage
Blackstone Parts & transmission At dealer's option 4, on transmission*
Easy Parts & transmission No "Lifetime," on transmission
Frigidaire Parts & transmission Yes 4, on transmission
General Electric Parts & transmission Yes 4, on transmission*
Hamilton Parts & transmission At dealer's option 4, on transmission*
Hotpoint Parts & transmission Yes 4, on transmission
Kelvinator Parts & transmission Yesf 4, on drive mechanism
Kenmore Parts & transmission Yes 4, on transmission*
Maytag Parts & transmission Yesf 4, on transmission
Norge Parts & transmission Yesf 4, on transmission*
Philco Parts (complete machine) No 1, on parts
RCA Whirlpool Parts & transmission Yes 4, on transmission
Signature Parts & transmission Yes 4, on transmission
Speed Queen Parts & transmission Yes 4, on transmission
"Lifetime," on stainless tub
Westinghouse Parts & transmissien Yes 4, on drive mechanism
Unless otherwise mutually agreed upon at the time of sale.
Labor may be contracted for with the dealer, sometimes at an extra charge.
summarized above the warranty programs offered by the manufacturers for automatic washers tested by Consumers' Research and reported in this issue. Note that warranties are made only to the original purchaser.
The manufacturers may have missed the point in their current efforts to be kind to consumers. What the consumer wants, we submit, is assurance that the maker believes that the appliance will operate satisfactorily for a reasonable period of time. If the equipment fails soon after it is put into service, the purchaser expects it to be put in working order, with no arguments, at a minimum of inconvenience or delay, and at little or no cost to him. He wants to know that someone accepts the responsibility for the appliance being in good working order, as delivered, that someone will have the needed parts and
service skills available to fix it promptly should it fail to operate properly. We doubt if he cares who does this, but he wants to know whether he must look to the dealer or the manufacturer for service when it is needed, with no doubt or equivocation.
As it is now, all the consumer seems to have is an assurance from the manufacturer that parts will be available for 1 year-or maybe two or five? It's hard to say, and with different clauses in different contracts, the buyer is not likely to know just what is coming to him, and what isn't. One thing is sure, he'll have to read all the fine print and ask questions; even then he may not know. Furthermore, oral understandings are not legally binding on the seller, a point that every consumer is advised to keep in mind in all purchase transactions.
Those pesky moths (and beetles, too)
(The beginning of this article is on page 13)
Read the instructions on the package before using any insecticide. Follow the manufacturer's directions. Avoid breathing the fumes or inhaling the dust. If insecticide is spilled on skin or clothing, wash it off promptly. Store any insecticide where children can't get at it. Recent information indicates that
dieldrin, an insecticide formerly used in homes for "permanent" mothproofing, is 40 times more toxic when absorbed through the skin than DDT. This new information about an insect-killer which has been recommended in a government publication for spraying clothing and blankets points to the need for storing and using any insecticide with care and caution.
Automatic electric-eye 35 mm. cameras
(The beginning of this article is on page 2)
type described) have an electric-eye system that selects a shutter speed and diaphragm opening combination suited to the amount of light on the subject. Generally in bright sunlight a high shutter speed and a small opening are selected; the shutter speeds become slower as the illumination on the subject gets dimmer. If a small opening is desired for great depth of field, the camera will not provide this automatically; the user must adjust the camera manually for that condition.
On manual operation, the fully automatic cameras usually offer only one shutter speed; this will be one which is suitable for flash; use of flash also, of course, involves manual operation in the setting of the lens aperture.
Most of the automatic cameras had manually-set focusing with click stops for close-ups, groups, and scenes; some had the more desirable coupled range-finder type of focusing.
The automatically set cameras tested all produced good exposures when sufficient light was available. However, the direction of the light source is important, for no matter what the glowing ads claim, the automatic cameras will positively not produce a perfect picture, automatically, every time. True, the mysteries of lens setting and shutter speeds are solved, after a fashion, for the inexperienced photographer, but the photographer must still use his own brain, and he does still need to know something of the basic principles of photography. If, for example, the subject is back-lighted by the sun, the electric eye will see the brighter light of the sky and the subject being photographed will be grossly underexposed. The camera must be focused properly by the user or the result, though perfectly exposed, will be blurred and fuzzy and usually wholly uninteresting.
Many amateur photographers, and not just those with extensive experience in use of a camera, prefer not to use an automatic camera, but would rather select the shutter speed and lens opening combination that determine the exposure and set the camera to obtain just the photographic effect they desire. However, it will often happen that the distaff side
The Olympus Pen, shown at the left, is very light in weight and compact (as compared to the ordinary 35 mm. camera shown at the right). The Pen uses ordinary cartridges of 35 mm. film; however, 40 and 72 exposures are made on regular 20- and 36-exposure films, respectively.
of the family just won't attempt to use a "complicated" camera to photograph Junior's birthday party or the baby in his bath because she is simply overwhelmed by the prospect of having to push and twist the right gadgets on an elaborately-fitted-out camera. It is here that the semiautomatic and fully automatic cameras come into their own; they are eminently suited to the needs of persons who do not wish to study the technicalities of photography, but who still want the better slides available from a 35 mm. camera as compared to what they could get with use of a box camera.
Ansco Autoset (AllSC O, Binghamton, N.Y.; made in Japan by the manufacturer of Minolta cameras) $99.50, including case.
Fully-automatic electric-eye camera. Ansco Rokkor //2.8 lens of 45 mm. focal length. Citizen Uni-E shutter with automatically selected rated speeds of 1/800 to 1/30 sec., and manually selected speeds of 1/30 sec. and bulb. Coupled range-finder of super-imposed-image type. Shutter speeds and lens aperture are automatically set by built-in electric-eye system. Camera has provision for presetting exposure manually for back-lighted subjects (see text).
Delayed-action shutter release (self-timer). View-finder has bright-line frame fully corrected
for parallax. A single stroke of the lever advances the film and cocks the shutter. The exposure counter is set automatically on loading the camera.
To operate the camera automatically, the user sets a ring on the lens mount to "Auto." He sets the film speed on a dial on the back of the camera (ASA 6 to 1600). Then he focuses the lens by means of the coupled range-finder, and presses the shutter release. Shutter speed and / stop are set automatically according to the light on the subject. If there is insufficient light for proper exposure, a pointer visible at one side of the viewfinder will be in the red end portion of the scale. The user has no control over the shutter speed used or/ stop selected during automatic operation of the camera (this could be a disadvantage in some situations; see text). On manual operation, the shutter speed is fixed at 1/30 sec., and/stops can then be correctly related by manual setting. Manual operation is also used for flash pictures. A simple and effective flash-setting system is provided. The camera is focused, and then the guide number (shown on the side of the lens mount) of film and bulb used is set opposite a red dot on the focusing ring. This sets the correct / stop. X synchronization.
Quality of lens, good; it resolved 56 lines per mm. in the center, 48 lines per mm. at the edges of the field, at full aperture. Shutter speed of 1/30 sec. was found to be accurate. Other speeds could not be checked directly, but pictures taken with the automatic system under varying light levels showed consistently good exposures.
The Autoset is judged an easy-to-use automatic camera of very good quality and performance for those who do not object to the absence of full control by normal (non-automatic) means.
Weight of camera, 1 lb. 10 oz. (relatively heavy); case, 7 oz.
Zeiss Ikon Tenax (Zeiss Ikon; distributed by Carl Zeiss, Inc., 485 Fifth Ave., New York 17; made in West Germany) Kit of camera, case, flash gun, and lens shade, $84.50. Fully-automatic electric-eye camera. Carl Zeiss Tessar //2.8 lens of 50 mm. focal length. Prontormat-S shutter is set automatically by the electric eye. When the shutter is set manually, 1/30 sec. and bulb settings are available. Lens is focused from 3}/£ ft. to infinity, by rotation of the front element. There are click stops for close-ups, groups, and scenes (no range-finder). Film is advanced and shutter is cocked by a single stroke of a lever. An accessory shoe is provided.
To operate the Tenax automatically, the user sets a ring on the lens mount to the automatic position. The film speed is set on a dial on top of the camera (ASA 10 to 1300). If the pointer, located on the top of the camera, is visible in the green portion of the scale, there is enough light for proper exposure. The camera is then focused and the exposure is made. If the pointer is not visible, there is insufficient light for proper automatic exposure. For non-automatic or flash shots, the ring on the lens mount is rotated to either the proper / stop or to the guide number. In these instances, the shutter speed is fixed at 1/30 sec. X synchronization. View-finder has a bright-line frame partially corrected for parallax. Exposure counter is set manually.
Quality of lens, fairly good; 56 lines per mm. at the center, 34 lines per mm. at the edges, at full aperture. The 1/30 sec. shutter speed was correct. (See comment on shutter speed accuracy in listing of Ansco Autoset.)
This camera, which had a metal body, was very well finished and relatively compact. The fact that the exposure needle warning is not visible in the view-finder was considered a fairly important disadvantage.
Weight of camera, 1 lb. 7 oz.; case, 7 oz.
Agfa Optima la (Agfa Inc., Rockleigh, N.J.; made in West Germany) $59.95.
Fully-automatic elec-tric-eye camera. Agfa Color Agnar f/2.8 lens of
45 mm. focal length. Between-the-lens shutter is set automatically. Manual position provides 1/30 sec. and bulb. Lens is manually focused with click stops for close-ups, groups, and scenes. An additional marking is provided for close-up shots at 3M ft.
To operate the camera, the user sets the film speed on a dial on top of the camera (ASA 10 to 250). When the camera is set for automatic operation, the electric eye sets the proper combination of shutter speed and / stop. If there is not enough light for a proper exposure, a red dot appears in the view-finder. Sufficient light is indicated by a green dot when the shutter release lever is depressed part way. The camera can be set for manual operation at 1 /30 sec. This setting is also used for flash shots. A flash gun with contacts in the shoe mount must be used, for there is no other flash-gun connection on the camera. A single stroke of a lever advances the film and cocks the shutter. The exposure counter is set manually, and indicates number of exposures remaining.
Quality of lens, fair; 48 lines per mm. at the center, 28 lines per mm. at the edges, at full aperture. The 1/30 sec. shutter speed was correct. (See comment on shutter speed accuracy in listing of Ansco Autoset.)
The camera, which has a plastic body with metal trim and lens mount, is nicely finished. Although lens performance was only fair, this camera, which is low in price for an automatic camera, is light in weight and easy to operate, and would be a good family camera for those who would use it only ocassionally and would not be making any enlargements, as large as 8 x 10 in., for example.
Weight of camera, 1 lb. (relatively light); case, 5 oz.
Olympus Pen EE-S (Distributed by Scopus Photo. Co., Inc., 404 Park Ave. South, New York 16; made in Japan) $64.95, including soft leather case.
Fully-automatic electric-eye single-frame 35 mm. camera which takes 40 and 72 exposures, respectively, on 20- and 36-exposure rolls of film. Olympus D. Zuiko //2.8 lens of 30 mm. focal length. Shutter has two speeds, 1/40 and 1/200 sec., selected automatically by electric-eye system. Lens is focused by rotation of front element and has click stops for close-ups, groups, and scenes. View-finder is the bright-line type, partially corrected for parallax. Film is advanced and shutter cocked by a knurled thumb wheel on the back of the camera. There is a folding rewind crank.
Camera is operated similarly to the Olympus Pen EE. However, the shutter speeds are selected automatically according to the brightness of the scene; brightest scenes will set the speed at 1/200 sec. and dim scenes will set the speed at 1/40 sec. If there is insufficient light, a red flag shows in the view-finder and the shutter will not operate. For manual operation and at flash settings, the shutter is set at 1/40 sec.
Quality of lens, fair; 56 lines per mm. at the center, 34 lines per mm. at the edges, at full aperture. (A lens of this short focal length should resolve about 80 lines per mm. at the center to be rated good.) Shutter speed of 1 /40 sec. was correct.
This model of the automatic Pen camera with its variable-focus lens was preferable to the Model EE, although size, weight, and appearance of the two cameras were about the same.
Weight of camera, 14 oz. (relatively light); case, 1 oz.
C. Not Recommended
Olympus Pen EE (D i s -
tributed by Scopus Photographic Co., Inc.; made in Japan) $54.95, including soft leather case. Small, fully-automatic electric-eye single-frame 35 mm. camera which takes 40 exposures on a regular 20-exposure roll and 72 exposures on a regular 36-exposure roll of 35 mm. film. Olympus D. Zuiko f/3.5 lens of 28 mm. focal length. Shutter is fixed at 1/60 sec.; it will not operate if there is insufficient light for proper exposure. Lens is fixed-focus type (like a Brownie-type camera-a fairly serious disadvantage for the experienced amateur) and, according to instruction book, can be used as close as 5 ft. from subject. However, at this close distance the pictures were not sharp. For desirable sharpness, distance of subject should be not less than 7 ft.
View-finder has a bright-line frame, not corrected for parallax. The film is advanced and the shutter is cocked by a knurled thumb wheel on the back of the camera. There is a folding rewind crank. Film counter (set manually) indicates number of exposures remaining.
To operate the camera, the user sets the film speed on ring on lens mount (ASA 10 to 200). This sets the camera for automatic operation. Electric eye sets / stop, and the exposure can be made if there is sufficient light. If there is not enough light, a red flag shows in the view-finder when shutter release is pressed, and shutter mechanism does not operate.
Manual /-stop selection is obtained by turning ring to /-stop numbers. This procedure is also used for flash pictures. X synchronization.
Quality of lens, poor. The 1/60-sec. fixed-shut-ter speed was correct. The camera, which has a metal body, is well finished and very compact (about 34 the weight and about the volume of the usual 35 mm. camera). Although the Pen EE is very compact, easily carried in an ordinary pocket or handbag, and easy to use, its lens performance is much inferior to that of the first model Olympus Pen (non-automatic) reported on in the June 1961 issue of Consumer Bulletin.
Weight of camera, 13 oz. (relatively light); case, 1/4 oz.
Yashica Flash-O-Set II
(Distributed by Yashica Inc., 50-17 Queens Blvd., Woodside 77, L. L, N. Y.; made in Japan) $49.95; case, $10.
FLilly-automatic 35 mm. camera. Yashica Opening the back of the camera resets film counter
Yashinon f/4 lens of 40 mm. focal length. Be- to zero. There is an accessory shoe on top of the
tween-the-lens shutter with single rated speed of camera. A flash gun for AG-1 bulbs is built into
1/60 sec. Lens is of the fixed-focus type (a fairly the front of the camera. A 15-volt battery used
serious disadvantage for the experienced amateur). to fire the flash bulbs fits into a compartment on
To operate the camera automatically, the film the bottom,
speed is set on ring on the lens mount (ASA 10 to Manual operation is obtained by turning a ring
200, which is a relatively limited range). The on the lens mount to the desired/ stop. A prac-
camera is set for " Auto"; the electric-eye system tical and easily used flash exposure guide for AG-1
will automatically set the / stop, to suit the light bulbs appears on the back of the camera,
conditions. If there is not enough light or too Quality of lens, poor. Fixed shutter speed of
much light for a correct exposure, the pointer 1/60 sec. was essentially correct. Camera, which
visible in view-finder remains within red zones. had a metal body, was of mediocre finish. This
View-finder is not corrected for parallax. The camera is little more than an automatically-set-
film is advanced and the shutter cocked by a single diaphragm box camera for use with 35 mm. film,
stroke of a lever. There is a folding rewind crank. Weight of camera, 1 lb. 6 oz.; case, 6 oz.
Brief Index of January through May 1963 issues of CONSUMER BULLETIN
Record players for libraries, schools*. . . .Mar 12
Records, phonograph, ratings*.....each issue
Refrigerator, thermoelectric*.........Jan 18
Refrigerator capacity ratings.........Jan 35
Rug-cleaning services, a look at*.....Jan 21
Rugs, scatter, skidproofing materials.Feb 41
Rust stains, removing from fabrics*...Feb 33
Scissors sharpener*...................Jan 20
Scuba diving, single-hose
regulators*..................Apr 6; May 33
Shavers, electric, men's (Nov '60, Annual
'62-'63), correction..............Feb 32
Shirts, white, men's*.................Feb 12
Shoe repairs by mail, complaints......May 41
Sinks, stainless steel*...............May 2
Skin, hormone creams, effectiveness...Jan 4
irritation from fabric finishes...May 4
"skin-smoothing" cream, claims....Mar 4
treatment for acne................Apr 4
wrinkle creams ineffective........May 4
Stereo, 1962 N. V. Hi-Fi Music Show*. .Jan 23
record players for libraries, schools*.Mar 12 Stockings, nylon, results of wear test*. . . .Apr 17
Teeth, effect of diet........Apr 3; May 3
Toasters, automatic*..................Mar 6
Tools, hand, low-priced*.....Jan 32/ Feb 43
Trading stamps........................Feb 3;
Mar 42,- Apr 41; May 42
Trees, fast-growing, claims..Jan 3; May 3
Typing errors, materials for correcting*. . .Feb 29
Warranties, court decisions*..........Mar 36
longer and more impressive*.......Jan 36
Water, hard, best for health*.........Mar 2
Water supply, detergent-polluted......Apr 4
Waterproofing basements*..............Mar 15
Windows, double-glazed................Jan 24
*Entries marked (*) are longer or more comprehensive items.
1962 and 1963 issues of CONSUMER BULLETIN (monthly) are available at 50c a copy from Consumer Bulletin, Washington, N. J. Issues of previous years are 60c a copy.
Cumulative index for January through December issues appears in December BULLETIN each year. 32 reprints are listed on p. 35, Dec. '62 issue; 6 recent reprints on p. 19, this June '63 issue.
Advertising, aspirin, validity of*.............Mav 36
pseudo science in*........................Feb 35
Appliances, apartment dwellers, needs. . . May 4
rental plans..............................May 42
Aspirin, soluble, effect of....................Apr 3
validity of advertising*..................May 36
Automobiles, 1963, preview* p. 9, Nov '62 issue
correction (anti-smog devices, p. 10).Mar 29
Automobiles, 1963, compact
annual comprehensive report*..............Apr 20
Rambler Classic 6, Buick
Special V-8*..............p. 6, Dec '62 issue
Dodge Dart*...............................Feb 18
Corvair Monza 900, Falcon Futura,
Tempest V-8, Oldsmobile F-85
Automobiles, 1963, full-size
annual comprehensive report* . Mar 16
Buick LeSabre, Chevrolet Impala V-8,
Ford Galaxie 500-6 and V-8*. . .Jan 6
correction (table, p. 10) . Mar 29
Mercury Monterey Custom V-8,
Plymouth 6 and V-8* . .Feb 19
correction (Plymouth 6, p. 23). . Apr 26
Chrysler Newport, Oldsmobile
Dynamic 88, Pontiac Catalina*. .. .Mar 24
Cadillac 62, Dodge 330 6, Lincoln
Continental* . Apr 11
Automobiles, battery chargers* Mar 33
discount houses, buying at .May 42
full-size or compact? Mar 17
little saving in buying abroad . May 3
seat belts 42
warranty, court decision Mar 36
whiplash injury 3
Basements, waterproofing* Mar 15
Batteries in toys and appliances, caution* . .Jan 43
Battery chargers, automobile* Mar 33
Boats, outboard motor* 20
Can openers, electric* 25
Chemical environment, human susceptibility
to, book reviewed* 24
Chemicals, farm, menace if misused* .Apr 27
China dinnerware, fine* 18
Cleaners and polishes for glass* 43
Clipping newspapers, etc., devices for*. .Feb 31
Clothing, foam-rubber pads, caution , , .May 3
men's white shirts* 12
underwear, thermal-insulated 42
Concrete walks, causes of crumbling*. . . . .Jan 16
Consumer Bulletin, bargain rates for
schools on back issues 37
binders for monthly issues 30
subscribers, change of address . Feb 28
inquiries for information .May 14
Consumers, court decisions favoring*. . . .Mar 36
Consumers' Research, magic of our name* .Apr 2
Contact lenses* . Mar 10
Corrosion in and around the home* , .Jan 29
emendation .May 19
Cosmetic creams, see Skin
Cosmetics, hollow-wall packaging*. . . . . May 43
Dinnerware, fine* 18
Dishes, machine washing of 42
Dishwashers (Sept '62), corrections: Nov '62, p. 34;
Feb '63, p. 32; Mar '63, p. . 29
Diving, scuba, single-hose
regulators* Apr 6; May 33
Dogs, feeding* .May 12
Fabrics, gas fading of colors .May 41
rust stains, removing* Feb 33
skin irritation from finishes .May 4
Foods, canned, storage Mar 14; May 4
chemical additives Feb 24; May 14
nutritional problems, change in. . . . .May 41
Gas ranges, free-standing* .May 6
Glass cleaners and polishes* 43
Guarantees, see Warranties
Hair, dandruff, treatment . Apr 42
electric curlers* Feb 2
wigs, care .May 4
Heart disease, related to drinking water* .Mar 2
Hosiery, nylon, results of wear test*. . .. 17
Ink for the fountain pen* 26
Irons, steam* Feb 6
Lawns, construction and maintenance*. . .Mar 43
Motion picture ratings* each issue
Motorboats, outboard* .May 20
Mushrooms, advice on preparation . Apr 4
Oil burner accessory 11
Packaging of cosmetics, hollow-wall*.. , .May 43
Peanut butter (Sept '62), correction.... . Mar 29
Pesticides, directions, follow carefully. . .Mar 42
farm, menace if misused* .Apr 27
labeling, unsatisfactory 4
Plumbing, do-it-yourself* .Apr 31
Radio, troubles with servicing* . Apr 36
Radios, AM-FM table-model* Feb 14
table and clock* 2
Ranges, electric, high-oven (Oct '62),
gas, free-standing* . May 6
AIR CONDITIONERS AND FANS
An air conditioner, even one of limited capacity, is far more effective in cooling a room, and the people in it, than any number of fans. A fan, or any other device which merely circulates air or moves it from one place to another, is not an effective substitute for an air conditioner, which not only circulates air, but cools, dehumidifies, and cleans it as well.
Fans do have their place, however, for the air movement they produce tends to keep a person cool, when the air is not too humid, by increasing the rate of evaporation of body perspiration. At night, they can be used to cool a home whenever outside temperatures are lower than temperatures indoors. For this use, the fan should be positioned about
3 feet from and directly in front of an open window, so that it blows the air in the room out through the window. The fan should be placed so that it blows in the direction of the prevailing breeze. Thus, if the night breeze is coming from the west, place the fan to blow out of an east window.
An air conditioner, by contrast, though it has a fan, utilizes it in a special way to move the room air past the cooled coils within the conditioner, and so transfer the heat in the air to the cooling coils and thereby deliver it to the outdoors. The fan used is designed so that it does not create a strong breeze or depend for its efficacy upon the movement of a large amount of air. Indeed, the fans now used in most brands of room air conditioners are of a special quiet, squirrel-cage type which is not intended to provide a stiff breeze but rather to provide positive air movement at a low air velocity. Thus, most present designs of air conditioners tend to be more quiet than those produced a few years ago.
Although the amount of air a conditioner will cool and keep cool depends upon several factors, the cooling capacity rating provides the basic information needed in choosing a conditioner. Prior to 1962, advertised capacities were usually based upon the horsepower rating of the compressor or upon cooling tests made by the manufacturer under his own preselected test conditions, and capacities
were rated in tons, horsepower, or British thermal units per hour. As a result, the consumer never had any assurance that the particular conditioner he purchased would do the job it was intended for, and he could not tell whether it had more or less cooling capacity than another conditioner. There was just no reliable means for comparison of the various brands on the basis of nameplate data.
As a result of these conditions and pressure exerted by several organizations, the great majority of the manufacturers of room air conditioners who are members of the National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) formulated a Certification Program and agreed to use a common basis for their capacity tests, a test method standard known as NEMA CN 1-1962. The cooling capacity or rating of any room air conditioner tested according to this standard is indicated in Btu per hour on the nameplate of the conditioner and certified by NEMA as being correct.
All manufacturers of room air conditioners may participate, whether or not they are members of NEMA. The Association, in turn, lias enlisted the services of a most reputable independent testing organization-Electrical Testing Laboratories-which administers a check-testing program to verify the accuracy of the participating manufacturers' ratings. A single sample of any model certified may be purchased on the open market for test and verification of the certified capacity rating. The manufacturer has no
knowledge of which of his models may be chosen.
The Certification Program has been in operation for more than a year and is proving to be increasingly effective. Indeed, for 1963, electrical input in amperes and the wattage rating are also certified. There is also some indication that the present allowable deviations in capacity ratings (to allow for unavoidable variations and errors) will be decreased to add to the precision and effectiveness of the certification.
Presence of the NEMA certification seal attached to the conditioner provides assurance to the consumer that the conditioner has been properly rated under the certification program. (On 1962 models, the seal was placed on the inside of the chassis.) The seal is about 1 x/± inches square (see illustration) and colored black and silver.
In prior years, when cooling capacities were frequently misrepresented, it was necessary for Consumers' Research to test a representative group of conditioners so that subscribers could make their choices on a dependable basis. The NEMA Certification Program has eliminated the necessity for these tests, and while several factors still remain whose evaluation might affect one's choice, they are principally of a kind which call for a subjective judgment based upon the specific needs of the particular buyer.
One characteristic, the noise emitted by the running conditioner, can be measured in the laboratory but is not included in the Certification Program. In Consumers' Research's tests of the 1962 models listed, it was found that differences in this respect were minor- and it was felt that greater differences than those determined by the measurements might be dependent upon the care taken in installing the unit and its location in the home.
There are other factors of lesser importance
which can be examined and evaluated by the consumer in the showroom on the basis of his personal likes and dislikes. Included among these are the legibility and ease of operation of the controls, the ease with which the filter can be removed for cleaning or replacement, and the presence of a protective grille over the external condenser fins.
Because it is not a simple matter for the consumer to decide upon the cooling capacity he will need to cool a specific room or area within his home, he will usually have to depend upon the dealer to make this decision for him. In this connection, he will find several useful suggestions in a small booklet distributed at no charge by the National Better Business Bureau, Inc., 230 Park Ave., New York 17, N.Y. This booklet, entitled Room Air Conditioners and prepared in cooperation with the National Electrical Manufacturers Association, also contains much information of general value to anyone contemplating the purchase of an air conditioner.
The condensed listings following cover the 1962 models Consumers' Research reported on in the June 1962 Consumer Bulletin. All were for operation on 115-120 volts alternating current. Corresponding 1963 models are given in cases where the information was available.
Amana 107-2S (Amana Refrigeration, Inc., Amana, Iowa) $225. Rated 6700 Btu per hr. 7.5 amp., 900 watts. 116 lb. fl963 model 107-ZU appears similar.
Coldspot (Sears Cat. No. W47-6113N) $200,
plus shipping. Rated 6900 Btu per hr. 7.5 amp., 890 watts. 139 lb. ^[Current Cat. No. 6313 appears similar.
Fedders, Model 11S-2F (Fedders Corp., Maspeth 78, L.I., N.Y.) $200. Rated 7500 Btu per hr. 7.5 amp., 860 watts. 145 lb.
Fedders, Model B12S-2 (Fedders Corp.) $225. Rated 8500 Btu per hr. 7.9 amp., 980 watts. 147 lb. ^Current model 4B12CSE-2 appears similar.
General Electric, Model RL-301-A (General Electric Co., Louisville, Ky.) $210. Rated 6200 Btu per hr. 7.5 amp., 850 watts. 120 lb. Model continued for 1963.
Hotpoint, Model ACH-92 (Hotpoint Div., General Electric Co., Chicago 44) $230. Rated 9200 Btu per hr. 12.0 amp., 1280 watts. 135 1b. IfCurrent model 2ACII92 appears identical.
Welbilt, Model 2070 (Welbilt Corp., Maspeth 78, L.I., N.Y.) $175. Rated 6100 Btu per hr. 7.5 amp., 850 watts. 112 lb.
Westinghouse, Model MRB-117-H (Westinghouse Electric Corp., Columbus, Ohio) $200. Rated 6100 Btu per hr. 7.5 amp., 835 watts. 99 lb.
B. Intermediate Admiral, Model 402AC7 (Admiral Corp., Chicago 47) $225. Rated 6200 Btu per hr. 7.5 amp., 920 watts. 106 lb.
Kelvinator, Model RC-371 (Kelvinator Div., American Motors Corp., Detroit 32) $200. Rated at 6300 Btu per hr. 7.5 amp., 940 watts. 149 lb.
Philco, Model 70-AC-131-B (Philco Corp., Philadelphia 34) $200. Rated 1600 Btu per hr. 7.5 amp., 910 watts. 133 lb. 1J1963 models, 7AC30, 31, and 33, 6300 to 6600 Btu per hr. rating, appear similar.
RCA Whirlpool, Model MP-100D-20 (Air Conditioning Div., Whirlpool Corp., Benton Harbor, Mich.) $200. Rated 6300 Btu per hr. 7.5 amp., 930 watts. 145 lb.
* * *
The following fans were reported on in the June 1962 Consumer Bulletin and readers desirous of more complete information may refer to that report. Most of the fans listed are current models and it is believed that all should be available for purchase throughout the summer of 1963.
Dominion, Model 2026 (Dominion Electric Corp., Mansfield, Ohio) $20 9 1/2 -in. "all-purpose"
General Electric, Cat. No. FI 1W13 (General Electric Co., Bridgeport 2) $50. 20-in. portable.
General Electric, Model F12A2 (General Electric Co.) $28. 10-in. "all-purpose" type.
Hunter, Model F012 (Hunter Div., Robbins & Myers, Inc., Memphis 14, Tenn.) $30. 12-in.
oscillating desk type.
Hunter, Model U-209 (Hunter Div., Robbins & Myers, Inc.) $44. 20-in. portable.
Hunter, Model V12 (Hunter Div., Robbins & Myers, Inc.) $40. 12-in. high-air-velocity type.
Markel, Model M2051R (Markel Electric Products, Inc., Buffalo 3) $50. 20-in. fan for installation in window.
Wells, Model W-2051-R (Wells Products, Inc., Buffalo 3) $50. 20-in. fan for installation in window.
Westinghouse, Model 12LA5A (Westinghouse Electric Corp., Mansfield, Ohio) $30. 12-in. oscillating desk type.
B. Intermediate Dominion, Model 2017 (Dominion Electric Corp.) $20. 12-in. oscillating desk type.
Dominion, Model 2067D (Dominion Electric Corp.) $25. 20-in. portable.
General Electric, Cat. No. F17S125 (General Electric Co.) $30. 12-in. oscillating desk type.
Markel, Model M-2036RX (Markel Electric Products, Inc.) $40. 20-in. portable.
Markel, Model M-2048FX (Markel Electric Products, Inc.) $30. 20-in. portable.
Wells, Model W-2049RX (Wells Products, Inc.) $30. 20-in. portable.
Westinghouse, Model AFD10VC (Westinghouse Electric Corp.) $40. 10-in. "all-purpose" type.
Westinghouse Mobilaire, Model AM20-1 (Westinghouse Electric Corp.) $50. Mobile, 16-in. high-air-velocitv type.
Westinghouse, Model AW-30-1 (Westinghouse Electric Corp.) $50. 20-in. portable.
Three of the most common types of fans are: on the left, the desk oscillator; center, a so-called "all-purpose"; right, the high-air-velocity fan.
Salmonella increasing as a cause of food poisoning
\xC2OFF THE EDITOR S CHEST
As summer approaches, officials of health and safety organizations issue timely warnings on the dangers of careless food handling, inadequate cooking, insufficient refrigeration, and contamination of food that make miserable the life of many a casual picnicker and unwary traveler. While "tourist sickness," a disease characterized by such symptoms as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, stomach cramps, sometimes accompanied by fever, chills, headache, and weakness, is likely to be at its height in the summer when a great many people are vacationing and eating in unaccustomed places, food poisoning is a problem the year round.
At a conference of bacteriologists in the spring of I960, a public health official estimated that food poisoning might be running as high as 500,000 cases a year, chiefly caused by staphylococci and salmonellae. It is held that microbial food poisoning is one of the commonest non-fatal illnesses occurring in the United States. Actually the real extent of such illnesses is unknown because of inadequate reporting and incomplete gathering of basic statistics. One 1962 estimate puts food-borne illnesses as high as some "several hundred thousands to millions" of cases a year. Since the illnesses are usually relatively mild and recovery is rapid, the affected persons often do not consult a doctor and simply pass off the incident as due to "something I ate" as if it were of no particular consequence. They do not seem to realize that food poisoning is a preventable disease which should be reported so that the causes can be ascertained and dealt with.
Reporting is so incomplete and investigations of food poisoning occurrences are so inadequate that it is not easy for public health officials to determine just how serious the situation is. It is often difficult to ascertain the cause of a particular outbreak because the suspect foods are either entirely consumed or thrown out before an investigation can be undertaken.
One cause of gastroenteritis (inflammation of the stomach and intestine) that is of particular concern is salmonella organisms harbored in eggs, poultry, pork, and processed meats. The very young and the elderly suffer the most severely from the effects of this disease. Its rising incidence has been responsible for the establishment of a Salmonella Surveillance Unit of the U.S. Public Health Service at Atlanta, Georgia. Common household items not intended for human ingestion, such as garden fertilizers, and dog and cat food, frequently contain salmonella, which may be passed on to human beings by contact with a carrier.
The complexity of the modern American diet makes it difficult to hold any one food or group of foods responsible for salmonella-caused outbreaks of gastroenteritis. The Food and Drug Administration reported only four outbreaks of salmonellosis in the 10 years prior to 1962, which involved canned egg yolk powder for infants, a dry baby-formula product, yeast powder, and hollandaise sauce. In 1962, six cases of gastrointestinal illness in Denver, Colorado, severe enough in four cases to warrant hospitalization, were attributed to Salmonella typhi-murium in chocolate eclairs. In September and October 1962, over 300 cases of the same ailment in Spokane, Washington, were traced to cream pies from one bakery. In a study reported in 1963, it was found that 75 of 142 samples of egg products, including egg concentrates, frozen whites, dried whole eggs, frozen yolk, and dried yolk contained salmonella bacteria.
In Canada, several cases of salmonellosis in June 1962 were attributed to egg-containing commercial cake mixes. A check of 22 commercial cake mixes in the Toronto area indicated that 11 contained the salmonella bacteria.
In Great Britain, where the demand for a large quantity of eggs and egg products cannot be supplied by domestic production, it is necessary to depend on imports from many other countries. One British expert has noted
that bulk whole-egg supplies from certain sources tended to be more heavily contaminated with salmonella than those from other sources, but the variation from container to container, even of the same consignment, made "bacteriological clearance" procedures unreliable guides to the safety of the product. Efforts have been made by the British Egg Marketing Board to secure passage of a regulation requiring pasteurization of all egg products to destroy the salmonella bacteria.
In the United States, there is no Federal regulation which specifically mentions salmonella or other pathogenic organisms. The Food and Drug Administration takes the position that it is empowered to take protective action by the section of the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act that defines a food as adulterated if it "contains any poisonous or deleterious substance which may render it injurious to health. . . There are no microbiological standards for any class of food at the present time. In this respect, the United States is far behind Canada, which in May 1962 put into effect a regulation requiring that "No person shall sell any egg product for use as food unless it is free from the genus Salmonella, as determined by the official method."
One of the dangers brought out by British studies of food poisoning from salmonella is that of cross contamination, where one batch of contaminated eggs comes in contact with another that is entirely free of the salmonella bacteria. There is another procedure that is a source of increased contamination pointed out by a British scientist studying the problem. In big commercial bakeries where frozen egg products are commonly used, it is customary to defrost overnight the amount needed for the next day's production, and it is by no means unusual for the bacterial count
Pamphlet on vegetables
Extension Bulletin 350 (Michigan State University Bulletin Room, P.O. Box 231, East Lansing, Mich.) on preparation of fresh and frozen vegetables is recommended. It is free to residents of Michigan and to persons living outside of the state who are engaged in academic teaching or educational work; others should send 10 cents per copy. Residents of Kentucky can obtain the bulletin (as Circular 583) without charge from the University of Kentucky's Cooperative Extension Service, Lexington, Ky.
of the egg product to undergo up to a fivefold increase. Sometimes the eggs after thawing remain for hours in a room without refrigeration.
Just what are the conditions in commercial bakeries and food plants producing cake mixes in the United States with respect to salmonella bacteria contamination? No doubt, in answering such a question it will be pointed out that there have been no reported deaths or mass outbreaks of food poisoning cases from bakery and other food products using eggs, in this country. Fortunately, death from salmonella bacteria is rare, and most people suffering from gastroenteritis recover quickly. There is, however, always the possibility that such attacks are weakening and leave the body susceptible to more serious forms of infection.
In any event, it is an encouraging sign that the Public Health Service has set up a unit to look into the extent of danger to health from salmonella bacteria. Informed consumers can do much to help by seeing to it that public health officials in their areas set up an effective system for receiving reports of gastroenteritis whenever it appears, ascertaining its causes, and keeping proper records of the occurrences. It is not possible to indicate just what course of action should be taken until a competent body of data is developed to present a clear picture of the problem. There is more than a suspicion that there is a serious problem, especially in connection with large commercial cake-baking operations, where the methods of thawing and storing previously frozen eggs may often be crude and unsanitary, to say the least, and where it is most unlikely that anything corresponding to proper bacteriological tests and safeguards will be in use either by the manufacturer or by city or state health authorities.
Please Note: Stereo records are indicated by the symbol \xC2. Ratings (AA, A, B, etc.) apply first to the quality of interpretation, second to the fidelity of the recording. Where performances are known to be available on both stereo and regular LP records, the number of the record not heard is given in brackets.
(s)Bartok: The Miraculous Mandarin & Shostakovich: The Age of Gold. Philharmonia Orchestra under Irving. Capitol SP 8576 [P 8576]. $5.98. Modern ballet music conducted by a man who has built a reputation on conducting ballet. The Bartok-explosive, vigorous. The Shostakovich-light, satirical. Effective contrasts. It's easy to warm up to the performance. Wide-range recording. AA AA
Beethoven: Symphonies Nos. 1 and 9. Chicago Symphony and Chorus and Curtin, Kopleff, McCollum, Gramm under Reiner. 4 sides, RCA Victor LSC 6096 [LM 6096]. $11.96. Reiner stands at the top of his form in these masterpieces. As a consequence, both performances rank with the best in the catalog. You'll hear some distinctive touches which you just know were carefully rehearsed- the Adagio introduction of the final movement of No. 1, for example-but this sort of extreme care is rare. On the whole the joy of life is present in both symphonies. The voices in the last movement of the Ninth successfully cope with their problems, too. Smooth, spacious, wide-range recording. AA AA
Beethoven: Symphony No. 9. Soederstroem, Resnik, Vickers, Ward, London Symphony, and Bach Choir under Monteux and Rehearsal of three movements of an "Impromptu Performance of the Marseillaise." 4 sides, Westminster WST 234 , $11.96. A good Ninth. How could you expect anything else from the eloquent Monteux? But what makes the set distinctive is the fourth side rehearsal miked during the recording session of the Ninth. Throughout the sound is very satisfactory. Strong bass. AA AA
Brahms: Third Symphony and Tragic Overture.
Vienna Philharmonic under von Karajan. London CS 6249 [CM 9318). $5.98. Von Karajan catches the spirit of this work. He keeps lyricism within bounds for three movements, then in the fourth, he thrusts home! Fine recording. Heard as from a distance. The "Tragic" nicely contrasts the lyric and dramatic, too. AA AA
Des Prez: Missa Hercules dux Ferrariae, Veni Sancte Spiritus, De Profundis. Wiener Kammerchor and Musica Antiqua Wien under Gillesberger. Bach Guild BGS 5042 . $5.95. Sacred music composed by a ground-breaking genius of the 16th century. Beautifully sung and spaciously recorded. AA AA
Franck: Symphony in D Minor. Chicago Symphony under Monteux. RCA Victor LSC 2514 [LM 2514], $5.98. Franck's cyclic symphony may show that his writing is conceived in terms of the organ and hence is awkward for orchestral instruments, but Monteux's conducting overcomes all difficulties. No exaggerations here! A great conductor who knows how to let the music speak for itself. Rich recording, wide dynamic range. Certainly unsurpassed by any of the recordings now available, including the recent Mercury SR 90285 (Paray, Detroit Symphony) which, despite its excellence, must bow for interpretation and sound to Victor. AA AA
Mahler: Symphony No. 1. Columbia Symphony under Bruno Walter. Columbia MS 6394 , $5.98. "The Titan," a fiery work by the young Mahler. The composer's disciple, Bruno Walter, conducts the work impeccably, as he did in the 1955 release. Fortunately the orchestra and the recording staff cooperate fully. AA AA
Rachmaninoff: Paganini Rhapsody & Tcherepnin:
10Bagatelles & Weber: Concert Piece in F Minor. Margrit Weber (piano) with the Berlin Radio Symphony Orchestra under Fricsay. Deutsche Grammophon 138710 .
$5.98. Principally romantic music, though Tcherepnin is a contemporary composer, that enables the pianist to show her skill, which she does with ease and polish. Very well aided by the orchestra and the recording engineers. AA AA
Shostakovich: Piano Concerto No. 1, Previn (piano)
& Poulenc: Concerto for two pianos, Gold and Fitzdale (piano). Soloists with the New York Philharmonic under Bernstein. Columbia MS 6392 . $5.98. Easy to like is the jaunty Poulenc which is well played by soloists and orchestra. The Shostakovich strikes me as a less pleasing work, but it, too, is well played. Superb recording. AA AA
Gershwin Holiday. Frankie Carle, Morton Gould, A1 Hirt, Peter Nero, The Three Suns, etc. 4 sides, RCA Victor VPS 6011. $11.96. An exciting set which offers 24 Gershwin tunes performed by seven groups. The styles differ from the slow vocals of the Norman Luboff Choir in "I've Got a Crush on You," to the constrained, original piano playing of Peter Nero with orchestra in "I Got Plenty O'Nuttin'." Lots of liberties taken by the performers, which may displease some listeners. Excellent sound with commendable use of the stereo medium. AA AA
(s)Hilde Gueden Sings Operetta Evergreens (soprano). London OS 25281 , $5.98. Melodic tunes from
"Chocolate Soldier," "White Horse Inn," "Zigeunerliebe," "Die Fledermaus," "Wiener Blut," and others. Miss Gueden sings more carefully than formerly, but the voice is clear, on pitch, enchanting. She sounds as though she were on stage with the orchestra in the foreground. AA AA
(§)30 Hits of the Tuneful '20's. Frankie Carle (piano) and Orchestra. RCA Victor LSP 2592 [LPM 2592]. $4.98. Frankie Carle was a teen-age pianist when most of these tunes were popular. Since then he sold 75 million of his recordings, the record jacket informs us. _ His style is homespun. How he loves to end a phrase with a right hand flourish! Basically, this is the way the cocktail lounge pianists were playing in the '20's. Here he plays "That's My Weakness Now," "Ramona," "Sweet Sue," "Just You," "Linger Awhile," "I'll See You in My Dreams," "Should I," and others. Good sound. AA AA (§)Living Strings Play Henry Mancini. Orchestra under Douglas. RCA Camden CAS 736 , $2.98. Man-cini's compositions for movies and TV often rank high on the popularity charts. Here are "Baby Elephant Walk," "Peter Gunn," "Blue Satin," "Breakfast at Tiffany's," "Moon River," and others arranged and conducted by Douglas in a way to show them in their best light. Excellent sound, too. AA AA
(s) Music for Organ and Orchestra. Poulenc: Organ Concerto in G Minor & Barber: Toccata Festiva, E. Power Biggs (organ) with Philadelphia Orchestra under Ormandy
& Strauss: Festival Prelude, E. Power Biggs (organ) with New York Philharmonic under Bernstein. Columbia MS 6398 [ML 5798], $5.98. Audiophiles will welcome this record. It offers a particularly fine recording of the lower tones of the organ which should serve as an excellent demonstrator for bass reproduction. Music listeners, on the other hand, are likely to regard this disk as a thrilling presentation of thrilling music. The Poulenc deserves frequent hearing while the Barber wears more quickly. Both are superbly played and brilliantly recorded. The Strauss features brass, not the organ. In this recording the violins sound a little thin. On the whole, however, it is a most welcome disk. AA AA
Ratings of Current Motion Pictures
THIS SECTION aims to give critical consumers a digest of opinion from a wide range of motion picture reviews, including the motion picture trade press, leading newspapers and magazines-some 16 different periodicals in all. The motion picture ratings which follow thus do not represent the judgment of a single person, but are based on an analysis of critics' reviews.
SOURCES OF REVIEWS
Daily News (N.Y.)
The Exhibitor Films in Review Joint Estimates of Current Motion Pictures MD
Motion Picture Herald National Legion of Decency
New York Times The New Yorker Parents' Magazine Release of the D. A. R.
Preview Committee Reviews and Ratings by the Protestant Motion Picture Council Time Variety
Descriptive abbreviations are as follows:
adv-adventure biog-biography c-in color (Ansco, Eastman, Technicolor, Trucolor, Warner Color, etc.) car-cartoon com-comedy cri-crime and capture of criminals doc-documentary dr-drama fan-fantasy
hist-founded on historical incident met-melodrama mus-musical rnys-mystery
nov-dramatization of a novel rom-romance sci-science fiction soc-social-problem drama trav-travelogue war-dealing with the lives of people in wartime wes-western
The figures preceding the title of the picture indicate the number of critics whose judgments of its entertainment values warrant a rating of:
A - recommended B -- intermediate C - not recommended Audience suitability is indicated by:
A - for adults Y - for young people (14-18)
C - for children at the end of each line.
All the Way Home
Amazons of Rome
And the Wild, Wild Women
Arturo's Island (Italian).
Bad Sleep Well, The (Japanes
Battle Beyond the Sun
Birds, The n
Black Zoo (British)
Bye-Bye Birdie m
Call Me Bwana (British)
Carry On, Teacher (British).
Carry On Cruising (British).
Child is Waiting, A
Come Blow Your Horn
Come Fly with Me
Concert at the Prado
Constantine and the Cross
Court Martial (German). .
Courtship of Eddie's Father,
Crime Does Not Pay (French
Criminal, The (British)
Criminal Life of Archibald
de la Cruz (Mexican)
Crooks Anonymous (British)
Cross of the Living (French)
David and Lisa
Day Mars Invaded the Earth
Day of the TrifTids, The (Brit
Days of Wine and Roses
Devil's Hand, The
Devil's Messenger, The .
Diary of a Madman, The..
Dime with a Halo
Doctor No (British)
Donovan's Reef n
Duel of the Titans (Italian).
11th Commandment, The
Elusive Corporal, The (French).
Escape from East Berlin.........
Everybody Go Home! (Italian). .
Face in the Rain, A (Italian).. .
Fast Lady, The (British)........
Fatal Desire (Italian)..........
Festival Girls, The.............
Fiasco in Milan (Italian).......i
55 Days at Peking..............wa
First Spaceship on Venus
Five Miles to Midnight
Five Minutes to Live............
Five Sinners (French)...........
Flower Thief, The...............
Follow the Boys..............mu.
Forty Pounds of Trouble.........
Four Days of Naples, The
Four for the Morgue.............n
Gidget Goes to Rome.............
Girl Named Tamiko, A ...........
Girls, Girls, Girls.........mus-,
Great Chase, The..............Hi:
Great Escape, The..............wa
Great Van Robbery, The..........my
Gunfight at Comanche Creek.a
Happiness of Us Alone (Japanes Her Bikini Never Got Wet
Horror Chamber of Dr. Faustus
Horror Hotel (British)..........
Hot Money Girl (British)........u
House of the Damned.............
How the West Was Won.. .hist-n
Huns, The (Italian).............
I Could go on Singing...........m
I Love, You Love (Italian)......
I Spit on Your Grave (French). .soc-mel A
II Grido (Italian)...................dr A
In Search of the Castaways
In the Cool of the Day...............nov-c A
Invasion of the Star
Irma La Douce................mus-com-c A
Iron Maiden, The (British). . . .com-c AY
Island of Love.......................com-c A
It Happened at the
World's Fair......... .....mus-com-c A Y
It's Hot in Paradise.....................mel A
It's Only Money..................com AYC
Jacqueline Kennedy's Asian
Jason and the Argonauts..........adv-c AY
John Glenn Story, The..............doc-c AYC
Kill or Cure (British)....... . .. .com AYC
L-Shaped Room, The (British), .soc-dr A
La Fayette (French)...............biog-c AYC
Lady Doctor, The (Italian)...............com A
Landru (French).....................cri-dr-c A
Last Days of Sodom and
Gomorrah, The.......................mel-c A
Last 24 Hours, The..................war-dr A
Lawrence of Arabia...................dr-c AY
Lazarillo (Spanish).......................dr A
Le Amiche (Italian).......................dr A
Legend of Lobo, The................adv-c AYC
Leopard, The (Italian).................nov-c A
List of Adrian Messenger.. .mys-mel AYC
Lonely Stage, The (British)............dr AY
Long Absence, The (French).........dr AY
Love and Larceny (Italian)...........com A
Love at 20 (French et al)............dr A
Love is a Ball.......................com-c A
Lovers of Teruel, The (French). . .dr-c A Lovers on a Tight Rope (French).. .dr A Loves of Salammbo, The
Madame (Italian).............hist-dr-c AY
Magic Voyage of Sinbad, The
Main Attraction, The
(British)............ .......mus-com-c A
Make Way for Lila
Man from the Diner's Club,
The....................... ........com A Y
Marizinia (South American). . . .mel-c A Marriage of Figaro, The (French).com A Mind Benders, The (British) .. .soc-dr A Miracle of the White
Mondo Cane (Italian).................doc-c A
Monkey in Winter, A (French). . . .com A
My Six Loves........................dr-c AYC
My Wife's Family (British).... .. . com-c A Mystery Submarine
New Kind of Love, A..................com-c A
Night is My Future, The (Swedish) .dr A Night They Killed Rasputin, The. . mel A
Night Tide...........................dr A
Nine Hours to Rama (India), .hist-dr-c A Nude Odyssey (Italian)...............adv-c A
Old Dark House, The.. . .mys-com-c AY
Operation Bikini.................war-dr-c A
Outcry, The (see II Grido)
Papa's Delicate Condition. . . .com-c AYC
Paranoiac (British)..............mys-mel A
Paris Belongs to Us (French).........dr A
Password is Courage, The
Peeping Tom (British)..........
Play It Cool (British). . . . . . . n Playboy of the Western World
PT 109 ........war-
Quare Fellow, The (British)..
Question of Consent, A.........
Quick and the Dead, The. .
Reach for Glory (British)...
Rice Girl (Italian)............
Riff Raff Girls (French).......
Riflfi in Tokyo
Sammy Going South (British Sampson and the Seven Mira
of the World.................
Seven Seas to Calais..........hi
Shootout at Big Sag............
Siege of Hell Street, The
Small Hours, The...............
Sodom and Gomorrah (see La
Son of Flubber.................
Sparrows Can't Sing (British
Story of Joseph and His
Stranger Knocks, A (Danish)
Sundays and Cybele (French^ Swordsman of Siena, The. . .
Take Her, She's Mine...........
Take Me Away, My Love (Grt
Tammy and the Doctor...........
30 Years of Fun................h
Ti?.ra Tahiti (British)........
Time Out for Love (French) To Kill a Mockingbird
Trial, The (French et al)......
Trial and Error (British). . . .
Trunk, The (British)...........
Two for the Seesaw.............
Ugly American, The.............
Vampire and the Ballerina,
Varan, The Unbelievable (Japanese).....................
War Lover, The.................
Warriors Five (Italian)........
Watch Your Stern
We Joined the Navy
Who's Got the Action?..........
Wild is My Love................
Wrong Arm of the Law, The (British)......................
Yellow Canary, The.............
Young Guns of Texas............
Young Ones, The (British). m
The Consumers' Observation Post
(Continued from page 4)
JACKETS, RAINCOATS, AND OTHER GARMENTS frequently combine suede, smooth-grain leather, and simulated leather with knit and woven fabrics. When it comes time to have such garments cleaned, there may be trouble from color fading, or bleeding and staining, particularly on light-colored items. The National Institute of Dry-cleaning suggests that the hang tag on such garments be preserved and taken with a soiled garment to the dry cleaner. The NID advises that leather items should not be allowed to become badly soiled before they are sent to the cleaner. All pieces (jacket, skirt, blouses, etc.) should be sent for cleaning at one time to avoid variation in shade, particularly with garments that are piped and trimmed with genuine leather. The NID also suggests that before making a purchase it is always wise to take into account the fact that leather-trimmed garments may not be cleanable either by wet or by dry cleaning methods.
* * *
THE INTEREST IN TRADING STAMPS appears to have reached its peak. That is the view of Printers' Ink, which reports the current craze is for games and giveaways. Some stores are also abandoning stamps for a low-price policy which appears to be popular in certain areas.
* * *
PILLS THAT ARE PACKAGED TO LOOK LIKE CANDY are a family menace. Commissioner of the Department of Consumer Protection for Connecticut, Attilio R. Frassinelli, strongly urges that candy should never be packaged to look like drugs. He particularly singled out "funny products" called Lucky Pills, Music Pills, etc., sold as a joke, to people who apparently did not realize the dangerous consequences that could follow. He pointed out that there is already the serious hazard of children's getting into medicine cabinets and eating pills which can cause illness or death, and suggested that it was only inviting tragedy to permit the sale of candy disguised as pills.
* * *
CREASE-RESISTANT CLOTHES treated with formaldehyde resins are a frequent cause of the skin distress known as contact dermatitis.
The extensive use of such resins is reported to be responsible for the rising frequency of sensitization in Denmark. One expert suggests that new resins should be developed to replace this class of obvious sensitizers.
You can pick for quality
If you subscribe to Consumer Bulletin!
Lots of people get fooled by phony price reductions and discount claims, but not CR's subscribers. They know the importance of checking for tested quality and performance in Consumer Bulletin each month. In addition to quality, we also rate products tested as 1, 2, 3, on the basis of the prices paid for them,- 1 being low, 3 high.
Once a year, the big 224-page ANNUAL, fully indexed for ready reference, provides a handy volume for checking previous product ratings. It also supplies money-saving information on many topics such as diet and nutrition, home heating, and cosmetics. It is not included in a monthly subscription, but is available at a special combination rate or separately.
Subscription rates and a convenient order form will be found on the next page.
Don't GET STUCK
UNSAFE ASH TRAYS ARE A CAUSE OF FIRE. The National Fire Protection Association estimates that a considerable number of fires due to careless smoking could be traced to inadequate ash trays that permitted lighted cigarettes to fall on upholstery or a rug. It recommends discarding all small shallow ash trays and using only those that are large enough to hold at least 10 cigarette butts. A safe ash tray is defined as one that has a wide outside rim and groove to keep the cigarette from rolling out, or a device to hold or snuff out cigarettes in the bowl. It should never be of material that will burn or melt.
* * *
NEED FOR ESTABLISHING a national drug information clearing house was outlined by a special assistant for science information to the U.S. Surgeon General recently. The objective of the center would be to supply information on drugs as Poison Control Centers now function in collecting and distributing data on poisons. The centralized system would record, classify, and supply information on all types of drugs, both old and new.
* * *
HOW LONG should the homemaker expect her sheets to last? It is difficult to determine life expectancy of different types of sheets with any degree of accuracy. The American Institute of Laundering points out that the use to which a sheet is put has a significant effect on its length of service. According to AIL studies, a type 140 (muslin) sheet used regularly in a motel gave an average of 90 to 100 uses where no attempt was made to mend it. Other institutions have reported as high as 200 uses for either a type 140 (muslin) or type 180 (percale) sheet. In evaluating laundering costs, the AIL estimates that the percale sheet (type 180) would cost 15 to 20 percent less per use than the muslin sheet (type 140).
* * *
SLACK-FILL PACKAGES are such a common occurrence these days that the humorists are even making jokes about them. One of our favorites is the one about detergents which come in four sizes: "regular, giant, colossal, and full."
* * *
THE INFREQUENT CHANGE IN APPEARANCE of the Volkswagen automobile is considered an asset, because it tends to maintain high resale and turn-in values on used cars. According to Automotive News, some dealers are taking advantage of this characteristic to disguise older cars and make them look like new. This is done by installing the larger taillight assembly of a 1963 model on a 1959 VW which tricks customers into thinking that they are getting a new car. The profit, according to the trade journal, amounts to something like $700.
Walkie-talkie kits useful in many ways
Eight ounces of fun and utility for children and grownups
Walkie-talkies have enjoyed wide use and many people have seen them in action in the hands of civil defense officials, police departments, parade officials, and other public or quasi-public agencies. Public-spirited citizens have helped by purchasing these devices and donating them to their volunteer fire departments, where they can be of immense value in saving lives and property. Their use as an aid to safecracking is a bit unusuaj, yet a recent newspaper story carried an item involving just this highly specialized application of the walkie-talkie device by a modern Fagin.
Almost five years ago, the Federal Communications Commission set aside a very small section in the communications spectrum, 26.965 to 27.225 megacycles (about 11 meters), for use by the public for voice broadcasting, the Citizens Band (CB).
The regulations covering its use are comparatively brief and simple and clearly delineate the type of equipment that can be employed, the manner in which it can be used, and restrictions on operation. For example, the power input to the transmitter is limited to a maximum of 5 watts. Thus the useful range of transmission is only from 5 to 25 miles, depending upon the type of equipment used, terrain, the antenna, and other factors. Although a license for operation must be obtained from the F.C.C., no knowledge of radio theory is required and no examination needs be taken, as is required for one who wishes to become an amateur radio operator. The minimum age limit for applicants for a CB station permit is 18.
The need for such a service is best demonstrated by the fact that more than 1,000,000 CB stations are now in use and filling a wide variety of needs throughout the country, including those of hunters, boaters, golfers, farmers, home repair servicemen, construction contractors, and hobbyists. For the hunter or climber in rugged or dangerous country, the walkie-talkie may actually be life-saving.
It has been estimated that about 75 per-
cent of the units in use are of the 5-watt fixed-station and mobile classes (installed in cars and trucks). The remainder are portable, of the so-called walkie-talkie variety, and in increasing use by hunters, campers, and other outdoor enthusiasts. The portable sets are generally more restricted in range than the fixed or mobile auto, taxi, and truck units because of their lower power input characteristics. However, a well-designed 1-watt "transceiver," which comprises both transmitter and receiver, will provide reliable two-way communication over a 5-mile range in reasonably flat open country.
Another kind of walkie-talkie is available for use in the Citizens Band on Class D operation. No license or permit is required for these units, and there is no limitation with respect to the operator's age. Indeed, because of their limited output-100 milliwatts maximum-they fall outside the general area which the F.C.C. polices. Transceivers of this type have a claimed two-way communication range of from x/z to 10 miles and vary in price from $10 to well over $100. The price differences are accounted for principally by the added complexity of the circuits in the more expensive models and the increased versatility of the equipment.
Consumers' Research chose for test one of the least expensive of the many brands available-a Knight-Kit at $9.95-simply because it appeared that a pair of these transceivers would not only be of interest as toys but might prove useful to some of our readers as adjuncts on hunting, fishing, and boating or canoeing jaunts. Further, it was felt that assembling the devices would provide educational benefits to the high school student- not necessarily those with scientific pursuits -who might otherwise have little interest scientific pursuits. The satisfaction retejvc from assembling the units, from the soaring of the first resistor to the final adjustment of the completed transceiver, together with the fun experienced in using them, more than justified our choice.*
(Concluded on page 26)
Coming in Future Bulletins
Adelaar Judy Bond New Era
Alice Stuart Lady Arrow Pilot
Bobbie Brooks Lady Manhattan Rhoda Lee
Coscob Lady Towncraft Shapely
Fashionality Macshore Ship'n Shore
Kerrybrooke Majestic Villager
1963 STATION WAGONS
Audivox Motorola Dahlberg Toshiba
Maico Qualitone Zenith
AUTOMOBILE POLISHES AND WAXES PARING KNIVES
Craftsman Flint Robeson
Ekco Forgecraft Signature
REFRIGERATOR-FREEZER COMBINATIONS Frost-free and conventional models
35 MM ELECTRIC-EYE CAMERAS
Agfa Selecta Honeywell EE35R Minolta AL Canonet 1.9 Kodak Motormatic Nikkorex Kowa E