VINTAGE OWNER'S MANUALS, SERVICE MANUALS, BROCHURES AND PUBLICATIONS
FAQ
Your Recent Purchases
Contact Us
Home
Welcome to Automatic Ephemera, an independent organization/library for historical research and education, sharing public domain documents relating to vintage products.


 


Please search through our database, we have hundreds of available documents...

Search Publisher: 
   Restrict to Product: 

Full Text Search of Automatic Ephemera:   

Clear and Start New Search


Review Selections & Checkout


Frigidaire Spray-Tube Dishwasher Brochures and Owners Manual


Published by Frigidaire in 1956-- Here are some absolutely beautiful brochures for the 1956 line of Frigidaire dishwashers, including the Built-in, Stand Alone and Sink-DW combo. Also included is the entire owners manual to the 1956 machines!

Number of Pages: 26
File Size: 20mb
Download Fee: $5.99

  Add Frigidaire Spray-Tube Dishwasher Brochures and Owners Manual to cart
Please note that all publications presented here at Automatic Ephemera are on average between 35 and 85 years old. This information is presented as a educational/historical reference on vintage products of the past. Any trademarks or brand names appearing on this site are for nominative use to accurately describe the content contained in these publications. The associated trademarks are the sole property of their registered owners as there is no affiliation between Automatic Ephemera and these companies. No connection to or endorsement by the trademark owners is to be construed.


Review Selections & Checkout

Here are the 25 most recent documents added to the library...
Add
High-Res
Download
to Cart
Click Thumbnail for More Information Title
and
Description
Product Year # of Pages File
Size
Download
Fee
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download 1951 Hotpoint Washer and Dryer Owners Manual
Here is the complete owners manual and operating instructions to the 1951 line of Hotpoint's washer and dryer.


Automatic Washers & Dryers
Published by:
Hotpoint
1951 40 25mb $5.99
Introductory Price of $3.99


ends in:
1 day
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download 1972 Waste King Dishwashers Owners Manual
Here is the complete owners manual and use and care guide to all 1972 Waste King Dishwashers.

Models include: SS/911 and SS/878.
Dishwashers
Published by:
Waste King
1972 40 12mb $5.99
Introductory Price of $3.99


ends in:
1 day
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download Westinghouse 1965-1967 Continental Range and Oven Owners Manuals
Here is a set of six different owners manuals for several Westinghouse Continental Ranges from 1965 thru 1967.

Models include: KEE3H, KEE3J, OSE3E, KEE3B, KGC, KGC30, KHC30 and other models from the mid 1960's including the double oven models.
Ranges/Stoves
Published by:
Westinghouse
1967 102 42mb $9.99
Introductory Price of $3.99


ends in:
1 day
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download 1961 General Electric Mobile-Maid Dishwasher Brochures
Here are some wonderful brochures for GE's portable top-loading dishwashers from 1961.

Models include: SP-40V and SP-60V.
Dishwashers
Published by:
General Electric
1961 12 9mb $7.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download 1955 Frigidaire Imperial Refrigerator Owners Manual
Here is the complete owners manual and use/care guide to all 1955 Frigidaire top-of-the-line Imperial refrigerators.

Models include: CIV-143 and CIV-115.
Refrigerators/Freezers
Published by:
Frigidaire
1955 48 24mb $7.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download 1972 Beam Central Vacuum System Brochure
Here is a sales literature brochure for the Beam Central Vacuum cleaning system for homes in the early 1970's.


Vacuum Cleaners
Published by:
Beam
1972 6 4mb $5.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download 1986 AEG Washers and Vacuums
Here is a German language brochure highlighting the 1986 line of AEG front loading washers and vacuum cleaners.


Automatic Washers
Published by:
AEG
1986 12 9mb $5.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download 1970 Speed Queen Washer Service Manual
Here is the comprehensive service manual to the 10970 line of Speed Queen Automatic Washers. This was the first models that used a reversing motor to shift from wash to spin instead of large solenoids like in the previous models.

Sections include: Service Procedures, Adustments, Test Procedures, Service Helps, Service Procedures Unique to Each Model, Timer sequence charts for each model and Wiring diagrams.

Models Covered Include:
DA9103
DA9101
DA9043
DA9041
DA9011
DA9000
DA6223
DA6221
DA6220
DA6191
DA6123
DA6121
DA6120
DA6111
DA6101
DA6100
DA6073
DA6071
DA6070
DA3781
DA3780
DA3691
DA3690
DA3661
DA3660
DA3501
DA3500
DA3211
DA3210
DA3201
DA3101
DA3100
DA3080
DA3001
DA3000
DA1040
Automatic Washers
Published by:
Speed Queen
1970 82 34mb $7.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download Corning Counter-Top Ranges Book and Brochure
Here is a look at Corning's glass top ranges, the first smooth-top electric ranges produced in the USA. Book shows features of ranges along with cookware that was included when you purchased a new corning range. Full color brochure at end of file as well.

Models include:
Gourmet series Cooktop K-32CR and K-19BR
Built-In Oven O-24AT
Family Series Cooktop K-35CR
Double Oven O-24BT
Full Size Ranges: R-30JB, R-30DB, R-30EB, S-30JB
Counter Saver: CS-16x20, csP-16X20
Ranges/Stoves
Published by:
Corning
1973 28 13mb $7.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download 1956 Bendix Tumble-Action Washer Owners Manual
Here is the complete owners manual and operating instructions for Bendix Front Loading Automatic Washer model WFG-D.


Automatic Washers
Published by:
Bendix
1956 36 15mb $5.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download 1966 Maytag Automatic Washer Timer Cycle Steps Education Bulletin
When Maytag redesigned their entire line of automatic washers in 1966 they created this document to educate the field about how each cycle works on each model washer. This bulletin describes each step in all cycles of the newly designed machines.

Models include: A106, A206, A406, A606, A806 and A906.
Automatic Washers
Published by:
Maytag
1966 10 3mb $7.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download 1962 to 1974 General Electric Refrigerator-Freezer Service Manual
Here is the complete and comprehensive service manual to all model GE refrigerator/freezer combinations.

Model series include: TBF, TCF, TDF, TFF.

Major Sections include (with sub-sections):
General, Cabinet Service, Electrical Parts, Diagnosis, Ice Maker, Custom Dispenser, Safety Practices.
Refrigerators/Freezers
Published by:
General Electric
1974 278 103mb $9.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download 1967 Hamilton Automatic Washer Service Manual
Here is the comprehensive service manual to all 1967 Hamilton automatic washers.

Models include: WA657W1, WS657W1, WA757W1, WA757C1, WS757W1, WA857W1 and WA857C1.

Sections include: Washer Facts, Washer Operations, Installation, Cabinet Service, Collector Tub, Suspension System, Transmission and Brake, Motor, Clutch, Pump, Water Carrying Parts, Controls, Electrical Parts, Circuits, Troubleshooting and Schematics/Wiring Diagrams.
Automatic Washers
Published by:
Hamilton
1967 58 33mb $5.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download 1967 Hamilton Holiday Electric Clothes Dryer Service Manual
Here is the comprehensive service manual to all 1967 Hamilton electric dryers.

Models include: HE627W1, HE827W1 and HE827C1.

Sections include: General Facts, Installation, Cabinet Service, Drum and Drive, Electrical Components, Troubleshooting and Schematics/Wiring Diagrams.
Clothes Dryers
Published by:
Hamilton
1967 38 22mb $5.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download Maytag All-Pushbutton Dishwasher Owners Manual Model WU-600
Here is the complete owners manual and use/care guide to Maytag's top of the line dishwasher from the early 1970's.

Model: WU-600
Dishwashers
Published by:
Maytag
1972 12 7mb $7.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download 1956 Philco Starflight Electric Ranges Brochures
Here are beautiful brochures for the entire 1956 of Philco Electric ranges.

Models include: 4610, 869, 469, 865, 465, 464, 461, 367, 365, 363, 265.
Ranges/Stoves
Published by:
Philco
1956 26 20mb $7.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download 1955 General Electric Wall Mounted Refrigerator Service Manual
Here is complete service manual to the 1955 Line of General Electric wall mounted refrigerators.

Sections include:
Adjustments, Care, Cold Room Operation, Cycle of Operation, Description, Installation, machine Data, Machine Replacement, Nomenclature, Performance, Specifications and Features, Uncrating, Vacation Operation, Wiring Diagram.

Models include: LW11-M, LW10-M.
Refrigerators/Freezers
Published by:
General Electric
1955 41 21mb $7.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download 1983 KitchenAid Stand Mixer Brochures
Here are some wondering brochures from the early 1980's highlighting the KitchenAid line of home kitchen mixers.

Models include: K5-A, 4-C and K-45.

Complete list of accessories available at that time included.
Small Appliances
Published by:
KitchenAid
1983 0 20mb $7.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download 1960 Kenmore 80-Series Push Button Washer Owners Manual
Here is the complete owners manual to the 1960 Kenmore 80-Series automatic washer with the all push-button control panel.


Automatic Washers
Published by:
Kenmore
1960 20 11mb $5.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download 1987 Whirlpool Washers and Dryers Brochure
Here is the complete 1987 laundry line of Whirlpool full size, stacked and portable washers and dryers. The brochure contains all direct-drive Whirlpool washers and matching dryers.

Models include:
Washers: LA3400XS, LA4400XS, LAS400XS, LA6300XS, LA5000XS, LA5300XS, LA5500XS, LA5700XS, LA6150XS, LA7700XS, LAJBOOXS, LA5380XS, LA5580XS, LA5800XS, LA7800XS, LABBOOXS, LA9800XS.

Dryers: LE/GZOOOXS, LE/G3000XS, LE/G5700XS, LE/G5800XS, LE/G6150XS, LE/G7800XS, LE/G9800XS.

Stacked Models: LT4900XS, LT5000XS.

Portable models: LC49000XS, LC4500XS, LT4900XS, LTSOOOXS.
Automatic Washers & Dryers
Published by:
Whirlpool
1987 24 20mb $7.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download 1985 Gibson Washers and Dryers Brochures
Here are some sales literature brochures highlighting the 1985 line of Gibson Washers and Dryers. Images and full specifications included.

Models include:
Washers: WA28S2WS, WA2805WS, WA28D7WS, DE/DG28T2WS, DE/DG28A6WS, WA24P2WS, DE24P2WS, WA24S4WS, DE24A7WS, DE24A7WS.
Automatic Washers & Dryers
Published by:
Gibson
1985 14 8mb $5.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download 1983 KitchenAid-Hobart 20-Series Dishwashers and Appliances Brochures
Here are some wonderful brochures highlighting the KD-20 series of KitchenAid home dishwashers, both undercounter and portable models.

Models include: KDS-20, KDP-20, KDI-20, KDC-20, KDS-60, KDI-60, KDC-60.

Also include brochures for KitchenAid food waste disposers, trash compactors and hot water dispenser.
Dishwashers
Published by:
KitchenAid
1983 22 17mb $7.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download KitchenAid 20 Series Dishwasher Training Booklet
Here is a fascinating 40 page book looking at how Hobart educated their sales reps to show off all the features and quality of the 20-Series KitchenAid Dishwashers.


Dishwashers
Published by:
KitchenAid
1983 40 28mb $7.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download 1983 KitchenAid Built-In Top-of-the-Line Dishwasher Comparison
Now this is super interesting, here is a comparison brochure of the KDS-20 Superba Dishwashers to all other major brands of dishwashers in the mid 1970's. Topics include:

Water Heating Systems, Motors, Wash Systems and Wash-Arms, Loading, Filtration and Waste Removal, Drying systems, Frames, Tanks, Inner Doors, Fill and Drain Systems, Weights.
Dishwashers
Published by:
KitchenAid
1983 20 13mb $7.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download Eureka 2300 Series Upright Vacuum Cleaner Owners Guide
Here is the complete owners manual to Eureka upright vacuum cleaner model series/2300.


Vacuum Cleaners
Published by:
Eureka
1977 8 4mb $5.99

25 Random Items from the Library
Add
High-Res
Download
to Cart
Click Thumbnail for More Information Title
and
Description
Product Year # of Pages File
Size
Download
Fee
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download Operating Instructions for your Norge Automatic Washer
Operating instruction card for Norge Automatic washers models 231-371-0 and 231-671-0.


Automatic Washers
Published by:
Norge
1961 6 3mb $5.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download 1949 Westinghouse Electric Range Owners Manual
Here is the full owners manual and operating instruction guide to all 1949 Westinghouse Electric Ranges.

Models include: A774-49, B74-49, D74-49, E64-49.

Sections Include:
Getting to know your range,
How to use your range,
Care and cleaning your range,
High Altitude Cooking,
Recipes and Cooking Charts for Westinghouse Ranges.

Itís all yours now! Your treasure of a brand-new Electric Range. Youíll love it...because itís so superbly automatic ...saves energy and leaves you more time for a dozen and one other things. And because itís so very easy to use. youíll have praiseworthy results every time. But wondrous as this Range is, it canít perform miracles without your co-operation. Thatís why itís so essential that you become thoroughly acquainted with its every part and function...learn how to use it properly...how to care for it so that it does more and lasts longer. Remember, youíll use your Range more than any other appliance you own!

So take a minute right now to carefully study this bookóespecially the section that refers to your particular Range. We've done our best to ďtell allĒ and give you the complete story.

Whatís more, we've included a couple hundred tried and tested recipes with which you can please the family. In no sense do we claim this to be a complete cookbook, so donít hesitate to continue using your favorite recipes, too, and watch how beautifully theyíll turn out on your new Range!

Ranges/Stoves
Published by:
Westinghouse
1949 84 48mb $7.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download Maytag Washpower Automatic Operating Instructions for model A206S
8.5" x 11" operating instruction card that came with newly designed Center-Dial Maytag Washers.


Automatic Washers
Published by:
Maytag
1966 2 2mb $5.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download For Features and Value Look at McClary
Wonderful catalog highlighting all of GSW and McClary appliances. Products include refrigerators, electric ranges, dishwashers, automatic washers, dryers, wringer washers, twin-tub washer, chest freezers and air conditioners.


Full Catalog
Published by:
GSW-McClary
1973 20 27mb $5.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download Advertising Pack Number 1
Here is the first in a series of highly rare advertisements from trade magazines for Appliances scanned in High Resolution! This first one shows off beautiful ads for:
- Whirlpool FSP-Factory Service Parts:
- Easy Combination Washer-Dryer
- Westinghouse Appliances
- Hoover Vacuums and Small Appliances
- General Electric Dealers
Miscellaneous
Published by:
Advertising Packs
1957 6 10mb $5.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download Appliance Manufacturer Magazine - June 1959
Appliance Manufacturer is a fun magazine to read for any collector or enthusiast of vintage appliances, electronics and other vintage home products. This highly entertaining magazine covered the design and manufacturing areas of Major Appliances, Small Appliances, Small Electrics, Radios, Televisions and other electric home products from the mid-20th century.


Trade Publications
Published by:
Appliance Manufacturer
1959 124 47mb $12.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download Hoover Toaster Brochures
Brochures highlighting the different kinds of Toasters available from Hoover.


Small Appliances
Published by:
Hoover
1975 4 7mb $5.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download Maytag Washpower Automatic Operating Instructions for model A806S
8.5" x 11" operating instruction card that came with newly designed Center-Dial Maytag Washers.


Automatic Washers
Published by:
Maytag
1966 2 2mb $5.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download Your General Electric Dishwasher
This is a fascinating look at early mechanical dishwashing. It is the full owners manual and operating instructions to a very early GE dishwasher. At this time GE had only been manufacturing dishwashers for about five years. The page on detergents is particularly interesting as they state "the word detergent is new to most of us".


Dishwashers
Published by:
General Electric
1937 20 11mb $5.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download 1980 General Electric Washer and Dryer Brochures
Here are sales litureate brochures for the 1980 line of General Electric Automatic Washers, Dryers and portable washer and dryer.

Models include:
Washers:
WWA8470V
WWA8450V
WWA8350V
WWA8320V
WWA8300V
WWA7070V
WWA7050V
WWA5800V
WWA5600V
WWA7060V
WWA3100V

Dryers:
DDE 4000V
DDE9200V
DDG9280V
DDE8200V
DDG8280V
DDE7500V
DDG7580V
DDE5900V
DDG5980V
DDE5300V
DDG5380V
DDC0580V
DDC4580V

Portables:
WWP1150V
DDP1200V
Automatic Washers & Dryers
Published by:
General Electric
1980 18 15mb $5.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download Brilliantly New Inside and Out - Frigidaire Electric Ranges - 1941
Frigidaire produced their first electric range in 1938. This rare brochure highlights Frigidaire's fourth year of producing electric ranges with beautiful illustrations and full feature descriptions and specifications. Models include: B-70, B-60, B-45, B-35, B-15, B-10, BC-6, BC-5 and A-6.

"Millions of women in the United States are now using modern electric cooking-using it because foods taste better . .. because it's fast and economical ... automatic and gives more leisure time . .. and because it's cool, clean and healthful.

Yes, electric cooking is the modern way and Frigidaire is the modern electric range. With its brilliant new achievements, low prices and easy terms, it is an outstanding value. Compare it, feature for feature and dollar for dollar, with any other range on the market and you'll find it unsurpassed! Make your choice now-buy now! And start enjoying the advantages of Frigidaire Electric Cooking. "
Ranges/Stoves
Published by:
Frigidaire
1941 16 16mb $5.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download Use and Care Guide for Dishwasher Model SLC-300
Complete Use and Care Guide/Operating Instructions for Whirlpool Dishwasher Model SLC-300.


Dishwashers
Published by:
Whirlpool
1965 5 7mb $5.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download Maytag Technical Bulletin 1 and 2
Technical bulletins produced by Maytag describing their Automatic Washer and Dryer cycles, the advantages surrounding them and reasons behind their design.


Automatic Washers
Published by:
Maytag
1974 7 4mb $5.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download The Hoover Constellation
Brochure for Hoover's floating vacuum, the Constellation, mode 843.


Vacuum Cleaners
Published by:
Hoover
1967 2 3mb $5.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download How to Get More Pleasure from your Whirlpool Automatic Gas Dryer
Full owners manual and operating instructions for all Whirlpool gas Automatic Dryers from 1950 to 1953.


Clothes Dryers
Published by:
Whirlpool
1950 8 4mb $5.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download Automatic Washer Service Manual
Complete service manual to all Norge top-loading automatic washers from 1951-1957. This manual however is valid for most Norge solid-tub washers through the 60s with regards to transmission, pump, motor and other mechanical parts.


Automatic Washers
Published by:
Norge
1957 89 64mb $7.68
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download 1974 Taller Tumbler and Higher Dryer Brochures
Brochures and spec sheets for the 1974 Westinghouse front-control front load washer and matching dryer. See the very first front load washer and dryer with Pedalstals! No the washer/dryer pedalstal was not a 21st invention!


Automatic Washers & Dryers
Published by:
Westinghouse
1974 8 11mb $5.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download Rare early Maytag Service Bulletins
Here are some random rare early Maytag Service Bulletins that were produced in the days before Maytag was creating their Let's Talk Service monthly service mailings.


Automatic Washers
Published by:
Maytag
1951 25 14mb $5.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download 1961 Franklin Automatic Washer Service Manual
Complete 74 page service manual to all Franklin automatic washers. Models include AIB, AIC, AID, AIE, AIF, AIJ and AIK.

The purpose of this manual is to assist the servicer by giving them the proper knowledge that he may correctly carry out the following important points which lead to good customer relation.

A. How to correctly uncrate the Automatic Washer.

B. How to correctly install the machine.

C. How to correctly instruct the customer of its use.

D. How to correctly dismantle and reassemble machine.

E. How to diagnose and correct service reports which they might encounter.

Throughout this manual we will not refer to your individual models but will cover all variations by referring to factory model numbers which are contained in the serial number found on the serial plate of each machine. Example: XAIB-YZOOO. The letters AIB or second, third, and fourth letters and digits will indicate the factory model numbers.

Automatic Washers
Published by:
Franklin
1961 72 39mb $4.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download 1980 Frigidaire Cooking Appliances Brochure
Here is a sales brochure highlighting the entire 1980 line of Frigidaire Electric Range and Major Cooking Appliances. Images and Full detailed specifications included for each model.

Appliances highlighted:

30" Electric Ranges
Compact 30 Drop in Ranges
Built-In Wall Ovens
Cooktops
Microwave Ovens
Frigidaire Cooking Accessories
Ranges/Stoves
Published by:
Frigidaire
1980 13 13mb $7.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download Westinghouse Service Bulletin
Here are some very notable Westinghouse Service Bulletins displaying new Agitator information, model features charts, cycle charts and specifications for Westinghouse Automatic Washers.

Also included is a 1967 Dishwasher Utility bulletin entitled "You and Your New Dishwasher" - Helpful hints to get the best results.
Automatic Washers
Published by:
Westinghouse
1969 23 20mb $5.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download Meet the Eureka Empress
Here are some wonderful brochures highlighting Eureka canister vacuum cleaners from the mid 1960's.

Models include:
The Top of the Line Empress,
Model 1025 - Cordaway Custom Vibra-Beat,
Model 1019 - Vibra-Beat,
Model 1015 - Vibra-Beat,
Model 1011 - Vibra-Beat,
Model 730 - Cordaway,
Model 705 - Princess and
Model 500B

Vacuum Cleaners
Published by:
Eureka
1966 20 23mb $5.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download 1957 Frigidaire Refrigerator-Freezer Owners Manual
Here is the complete owners manual and use/care guide to many 1957 Frigidaire Home Refrigerators.

Models include: CP-141-57, CP-123-57, Fi-121-57, FD-102-57 and FS-101-57.
Refrigerators/Freezers
Published by:
Frigidaire
1957 20 17mb $7.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download Getting to know your new Frigidaire 1954 Thrify-30 Electric Range
Full owners manual and operating instructions to all 1954 30" Frigidaire Electric Ranges.

Models include: RT-38 and RT-30
Ranges/Stoves
Published by:
Frigidaire
1954 36 15mb $7.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download 1974 Frigidaire Touch-and-Cook Electric Range Service Manual
Here is the complete service manual to Frigidaire's first digital touch-pad electric Range!

Full specifications, service and troubleshooting sections included.

Models include: RCIE3-39CDW and RCIE-39CDW.
Ranges/Stoves
Published by:
Frigidaire
1974 42 32mb $7.99

Review Selections & Checkout          --          Continue Browsing the Library

For license and copyright information related to these materials please click here.

Please note that all publications presented here at Automatic Ephemera are on average between 35 and 85 years old. This information is presented as a educational/historical reference on vintage products of the past. Any trademarks or brand names appearing on this site are for nominative use to accurately describe the content contained in these publications. The associated trademarks are the sole property of their registered owners as there is no affiliation between Automatic Ephemera and these companies. No connection to or endorsement by the trademark owners is to be construed.