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Consumer Bulletin - October 1962


Published by Consumer Bulletin in 1962-- For October of '62 Consumer Bulletin tests "Flair" style High-Oven electric ranges. In this issue they provide a full story and full ratings on their test results of the following models: Frigidaire Custom Imperial Flair, General Electric Americana, Kenmore Classic, Tappen Fabulous 400 and the Westinghouse Continential.

Other interesting reports in this issue include: A further look at popular breakfast cereals, What goes into modern chewing gums?, Should you "dry clean" your car- or wash it with water, in the time-honored way?, Stereo FM (multiplex) adapters, Selecting a Shotgun, Tire gauges and "Runless" nylons. Also "The sun tan may be unfashionable one of these days. The danger of skin cancer will soon eliminate today's sun tan as a status symbol".

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Here is an automated summary of some of the text contained in:
Consumer Bulletin - October 1962
Published in 1962

Important: Please note the summary text below was created by electronically reading the scanned images with optical character recognition software (ocr). OCR technolgoy is not yet perfected and you might see some spelling and formatting errors in the preview text below. These errors are not actually in the final product, the download file you will receive is a pure clean high-resolution scan of the original document, containing all text, graphics and photos exactly as originally printed.
Page 1:

SHOULD YOU "DRY CLEAN" YOUR CAR

THE STRANGE MIX THEY CALL CHEWING GUM

HIGH-OVEN ELECTRIC RANGES

TIRE GAUGES, MOSTLY INACCURATE

Modern stereo FM reception stereo FM "multiplex" adapters

"RUNLESS" HOSIERY FAILS TEST

Page 2:

'RUNLESS' NYLONS

This fall there is a new fashion item for women, in addition to bulky woolens, leather caps, and long pull-over sweaters. Runless hose, heralded in enthusiastic advertisements early in the summer became available in many stores in late August and September.

The hosiery had not been on sale long before the unqualified runless claim was modified to "run resistant." Although the ads still claimed "good bye to ugly runs," they were careful to point out that "the new 15-denier sheers obviously are not indestructible . . .[but] ordinary pulls or holes are not likely to develop into runs and any runs that may occur in the conventionally knit toe, heel or welt will not continue into the body of the stocking."

Many women have long wished that manufacturers would produce runless hose. Indeed some, no doubt, abetted by their husbands have believed that such hose could be produced if the manufacturers cared to make them. What they failed to take into account was the essential conflict in a woman's preference for gossamer sheerness and durability.

The new hose, which resemble seamless mesh hose, are of an interlock-knit construction, and interlock-knit fabric has been used for men's underwear for many years. Because of its construction, interlock fabric contains more yarn per square inch than conventionally-knit fabrics. Thus, the new run-resistant hose require about 25 percent more yarn than ordinary stockings, and therefore are not as sheer as the hosiery that American women are accustomed to wearing. They cost more, too, selling at about $2 a pair,

"Now it's here! It's called foreva and it's runless forever!" read a full-page advertisement in a Sunday paper.

"Runless" nylons! There has not been so much excitement over an innovation in the hosiery field since 1940, when the first nylon stockings were marketed. The "runless" nylons are priced higher than regular nylons ($2 as compared with $1). Will women find them worth the extra price?

Hosiery is big business. In dollar volume, indeed, it is said to account for a greater percentage of all retail business than household appliances. Last year 840 million pairs of women's hosiery were produced, of which all but about 10 million pairs were nylon. It is estimated that the average American female, age 14 and over, buys over 14 pairs a year.

compared with $1 a pair, the average price for a pair of nylon stockings. Both the lack of sheerness and the higher price are likely to hold down sales of the run-resistant hose- quite aside from any question of performance.

Over the years, American women have indicated that they are primarily interested in sheerness in hosiery. Most nylon hosiery made in 1940 was 40 denier, a heavy weight today, though it seemed sheer at the time. Today most women wear 15-denier nylons, though 30-denier "walking" or "business" weight nylons are generally available and will likely wear longer-barring accidents.

The preference for sheer stockings may not

(Continued on page 34)

The mesh of the "run-resistant" hose At tested (15 denier).

Ordinary mesh hose (15 denier),

Plain knit hose (15 denier, 51 gauge)
Page 3:

The Consumers' Observation Post

BUYING UPHOLSTERED FURNITURE is something of a gamble these days, as many women have discovered. Will the fabric give satisfactory wear and how soon will it fade, are two questions to which the retailer usually has no satisfactory answer. In fact, the manufacturers do not seem to know either. According to Home Furnishings Daily, some factory price lists read: "We do not guarantee and will

not assume responsibility as to either the fastness of colors, or the wearing quality of any cover material." The wise consumer should certainly avoid buying any upholstered furniture for which she cannot obtain a guarantee against marked fading for at least five years.

* * *

HAIR SPRAY IN AEROSOL CONTAINERS has achieved widespread popularity. According to one study, more than one out of every two women use hair spray, and 70 percent of these users spray their hair more than once a week; almost one half, at least once a day, according to a study made by a market survey organization, National Family Opinion. The most popular spray, based on polyvinyl pyr-rolidone (PVP), was considered harmless, but cases are being reported in medical journals of spray residues in the lungs. There is also a possibility that PVP may be a carcinogen (a substance capable of initiating a cancerous growth). It will be wise to keep the use of any hair spray down to a minimum and carefully avoid inhaling it.

* * *

MARGARINE is made from a variety of oils and fats, with the selection of the essential ingredients largely governed by price. Soybean and cottonseed oils are preferred, but according to one report, in 1961 margarine producers used a record amount of lard because it was cheaper than the vegetable oils. People with an allergy to pork will need to bear the substitution in mind.

* * *

DISCOUNT STORES are now working on their own "seal of approval." According to Home Furnishings Daily, the discount trade association, impressively-and misleadingly-named "The National Association of Consumer Organizations," is working on a certified quality seal program. Currently, a complete line of aerosol products is authorized to use the NACO seal, including paints, insecticides, and "air fresheners." The seal is also being used by a West Coast pharmaceutical house for items such as vitamins, mouthwash, aspirin, and low-calorie food substitutes. It is reported that the products bearing the NACO seal will be made by the better known brand name producers, but will not carry the brand name of those firms.

* * *

THE PROPER TYPE OF CHAIR is important for those who suffer backaches and other back ailments. Dr. J. J. Keegan of Lawrence, Mass., in an evaluation of 29 chair seats in common use, described the correct seat as having an angle of at least 105 degrees between shoulders and thighs, soft rounded support in the lower lumbar region, and seat length and height not over 16 inches. It was his view that the secretary's chair represents the nearest approach to a correct seat. Automobile seats received the lowest rating. Dr. Keegan suggested that the low-back pain sometimes caused by auto seats can be prevented by placement of a properly-shaped, soft foam-rubber cushion back of the lumbar region (the lower part of the back on either side of the backbone, between the hipbones and the ribs).
Page 4:

AUTOMOBILE ODOMETERS SELDOM REGISTER CORRECTLY. Inspection of odometers in Miami this past year revealed some startling information. The investigation was undertaken after a vigorous complaint had been received from a Canadian visitor that he was being charged for more miles than he actually traveled in an automobile obtained from a car rental agency. An official test revealed the fact that on 36 cars, the odometers of all except one overregistered. The average error was nearly 4 percent, and 10 of the cars tested showed an error of +6 percent or more. The customers of drive-yourself automobiles in other areas may wish to look into the matter, because the Florida authorities came to the conclusion that it is the policy of automobile manufacturers generally to gear odometers so that they always over-register.

* * *

SUN TAN MAY BE UNFASHIONABLE ONE OF THESE DAYS. The danger of skin cancer will soon eliminate today's sun tan as a status symbol, predicts Dr. J. Graham Smith, Jr., dermatologist, of Duke University. He warned that even young women in their 20's show signs of skin cancer if they have a fair complexion and are overexposed to sunlight. It is his belief that the pale medieval complexion will come to be popular in the next 10 years.

* * *

THE DANGEROUS TRANQUILIZING DRUG THALIDOMIDE sold under various trade names has made headlines recently as its disastrous side-effects have come to light. It has been reported to cause birth deformities in infants of a grave and characteristic nature, when administered during the early stage of pregnancy. Although the drug was chiefly distributed abroad, it now becomes evident that it was made available to a large number of American physicians on an experimental basis. Due solely to the vigilance of a woman physician-pharmacologist in the Food and Drug Administration, Dr. Frances 0. Kelsey, who held that the proof of thalidomide's safety was inadequate and turned down the manufacturer's application for approval, use of the dangerous drug was limited chiefly to supplies brought in from abroad. The important lesson to be learned from this catastrophe is that it is essential that the official acceptance of any drug, pesticide, or food additive should be given only after extensive tests have been made, all reasonably possible side-effects investigated, and a sufficient length of time allowed for such effects to come to light. At present, the consumer is being made the guinea pig for too many new and untried chemical substances, and the tests are of such limited nature or their periods so brief as to be wholly inconclusive.

* * *

HOW MUCH CHICKEN is there in those extensively displayed dehydrated chicken soups? The U. S. Department of Agriculture has issued a regulation requiring a minimum of 2 percent of chicken in these soups, but the manufacturers are protesting it loudly. Keep that in mind the next time you are tempted by the picture on the package. They don't even want to put a mere 2 percent of real chicken in the stuff.

* * *

THE PITCHMEN ARE BACK IN CALIFORNIA. A traveling lecturer and his assistants have been indicted on charges of violating health and safety laws by advertising cures for cancer, arthritis, and gallstones. After a series of free lectures, they offered customers "advanced courses" for $25 that included bottles of "ambrosia of the gods," containing a liquid found to be essentially honey.

(The continuation of this section is on page bl)
Page 5:

Consumer Bulletin

THE ORIGINAL CONSUMER INFORMATION MAGAZINE

Consumers' Research is a non-profit institution, it is organized and operates as a scientific, technical, and educational service for consumers. The organization has no support from business or industry. Its funds come solely from the ultimate consumers who read Consumer Bulletin.

Listings usually are arranged in alphabetical order by brand name (not in order of merit) under each quality or performance rating. A numeral 1, 2, or 3 at the end of a listing indicates relative price, 1 being low, 3 high. Where the 1, 2, 3 price ratings are given, brands in the 1, or least expensive, group are listed alphabetically, followed by brands in price group 2, also in alphabetical order, etc. A quality judgment is wholly independent of price.

VOL. 45, NO. 10 CONTENTS OCTOBER 1962

"Runless" nylons......................................................... 2

New promotions misrepresent the hosiery

Selecting a shotgun...................................................... 6

CR's tests included two semiautomatic and five pump-action shotguns, and one double-barrel shotgun

Stereo FM (multiplex) adapters........................................... 14

High-oven electric ranges................................................ 16

Tests by Consumers' Research indicated that the principal advantage of these ranges was in their different appearance rather than convenience and superior performance

Tire gauges.............................................................. 22

A tire-pressure gauge costs little, but if it is inaccurate, as most of the gauges tested were, it can cost its owner a good deal in shortened tire life

A further look at popular breakfast cereals.............................. 25

A discussion of misleading claims made for some brands, undesirable practices in packaging and labeling, with some good advice on nutrition, and a special note on whole-grain bread and cereals

What goes into modern chewing gums?................................. 30

Would you like to chew some rubber-natural or synthetic-maybe both? Today's gum is a hodge podge of strange, highly questionable ingredients of which very few are named on the label

Should you "dry clean" your car-or wash it with water, in the

time-honored way?.............................................. 43

FEATURES

The Consumers' Observation Post........................... 3

Index for January through September 1962 Bulletins........ 13

Off the editor's chest-Can human beings withstand the barrage of economic poisons? 36

Phonograph Records-Walter F. Grueninger................... 38

Ratings of Current Motion Pictures........................ 39
Page 6:

SELECTING A SHOTGUN

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Page 13:

Brief Index of January through September 1962 issues of CONSUMER BULLETIN

Month Page

Air conditioners, room*.....................June 6

correction.............................Aug 30

Anti-freeze (Nov. '61),

correction..........................Jan 17; Mar 21

Appliances, servicing.............June 3; Aug 4

Automobiles, 1962, compact

annual report*.........................Apr 6

Buick Special V-6, Rambler

American*..............................Jan 7

Chevy II*..............................Feb 18;

Dec. '61, p. 37, correction Mar 21 Plymouth V-8, Rambler Classic 6*.. .Feb 19

corrections........................Apr 18

Lark 6, Pontiac Tempest 4 and V-8,

Valiant*...............................Mar 6

Dart 6, Fairlane V-8, Meteor V-8*. Apr 13 Automobiles, 1962, full-size

annual report*..........................May 13

Ford Galaxie 500 V-8*. . .p. 3, Dec. '61 issue Chevrolet 6 and V-8, Mercury

Monterey V-8*..........................May 22

Oldsmobile Dynamic 88, Pontiac

Catalina*..............................June 22

Buick LeSabre, Chrysler Newport*. .July 9 Automobiles, 1962, over-all lengths*... .Jan 6

cost to operate a car...................Aug 3

hazards, needless*......................Aug 12

posted prices, unrealistic..............Aug 4

safe driving, and nutrition.............Aug 2

safety belts*...........................Sept 25

station wagons of 1962*.................July 6

tires*..................................Aug 14

used cars, buying.......................July 6

Batteries, car, danger*.....................Jan 22

Battery additive, litigation with govt.*. . . . Mar 36

Bicycles*...................................Sept 6

Bleach, chlorine, caution*..................May 12

Book covers, adjustable.....................Aug 38

Bookrest for reading and typing.............July 38

Cameras, box, Brownie*..............Jan 24; Aug 25

Polaroid*...................................Jan 24

Russian-made............................Sept 41

shutter release, remote*....................Jan 25

Camping, suggestions for safety*............June 39

Cereals, breakfast*.................Feb 30; Mar 14

protein, compared with meat.............Aug 4

Chickens, hormone-treated. . .May 39*; July 4

Clock, cordless electric*...................Jan 2

Coffee maker, repairs for...................Mar 35

Consumer Price Index..............Jan 32*; Mar 41

Consumers, demand for more services*. . Sept 35 pitfalls in buying from discount

mail-order firms.......................Sept 4

proposed federal services*..............May 33

"referral selling"*.....................July 32

Consumers' Research, misuse of name. . . .July 31

Cooker for frankfurters, electric*..........Sept 2

Counter coverings, self-adhesive vinyl*. . .Jan 26

correction..............................Aug 30

Dehumidifier, chemical*.....................Apr 30

Detergents, laundry*........................Feb 23

Discount buying "clubs"... .June 32*,-Aug 37 Discount houses (Dec. '61), correction.. Apr 41

Dishwashers, automatic*..................... . .Sept 16

Dishwashing accessory (rinse-spray)*........July 29

Dry cleaning, coin-operated*................Jan 29

Month Page

Economic freedom, book on. .Feb 34*; May 4

Eraser, electric*...........................Feb 27

Fans, electric*...............................June 10

Film, color, mail-order processing*............Feb 2

half-frame 35 mm., processing*............Jan 13

Kodachrome II, new*....................Apr 43

Perutz 35 mm. color, new*.................Feb 29

Film developer, new*...........................Feb 22

Fire extinguishers*.........................Sept 43

Flash gun, compact*............................Jan 25

Floors, vinyl coverings*.......................Feb 13

Floor-washer-dryers*........................Apr 16

correction.............................June 9

Food, water, and air, pollution of*.........Apr 28

effect on health, book review*.........Aug 23

Food additives, in cereals.........Feb 30; Mar 14

in ice cream*..........................July 12

mystery of the butylated twins*........Aug 28

secret ingredient "markers"............June 24

Hair spray residues in the lungs............Sept 42

Hams, smoked, water content on label. . .Sept 4

Hangers, coat, wire.........................Sept 41

Heart disease, and diet.....................Aug 3

High-Fidelity Music Show, New York*. .Jan 20

Hosiery, "non-run" nylon....................Aug 37

House, how to cool, book review*............June 20

Ice cream-What's in it?*....................July 12

correction...............................Sept 24

Insecticide vaporizers, lindane.............Aug 31

Irons, travel*.................................Jan 14

Labeling and packaging, deceptive*. . . Sept 28

food products. Feb 30; Mar 14; June 24;

July 12; Sept. 28*

Labeling of hazardous chemicals.............Feb 17;

Mar 42; May 12*

Lawn mowers, power, reel*.....................June 14

rotary*...................May 6; July 15

riding*.............................June 17

Lawns, frequent mowing inadvisable..........Sept 3

safety shoes for mowing...................Aug 4

Luggage, lightweight soft-side zippered*. July 24

Lumber, pre-painted, weaknesses*...............Aug 27

Maple syrup from pi I l-treated trees.........Sept 42

Meats, excess fat in.May 38; Aug 31,37

grading system, new....................Aug 31, 38

harmful drug in............May 39*; July 4

Microscopes, low-cost*.........................Apr 2

Motion pictures, ratings*...............each issue

Needle threaders*.............................Sept 22

Oven-cleaners*................................July 21

Packaging, deceptive, see Labeling

Paint a house, best time to....................Apr 34

Paint for walls in kitchens and bathrooms. .Mar 31

Paints, fire-retardant.........................Apr 34

Peanut butter*................................Sept 13

Peanuts, roasted, "low-calorie"...............Sept 3

Photographic equipment, buying from a

discount house risky..........................Sept 42

printer-developing unit*.................July 39

Polish, silver*................................May 2

Polishes and cleaners, copper and brass*. .Mar 2

Projectors, slide*.................Feb 6; Aug 25

Radiation detector, fallout shelters*..........Apr 32

Radio for a car, portable transistor...........Jan 17

Month Page

Radios, portable transistor*.....................Aug 18

correction (Dec. '61)......................Mar 21

Raincoats, men's plastic*........................Jan 10

Razor blades*....................................Mar 43

Record players, stereo*.........................June 25

Recorders, stereo tape*..........................May 25

Records, phonograph, ratings*.............each issue

Refrigerators, 1962*..........................Aug

small or "compact"*.....................July

corrections...................Aug 30; Sept

Rugs, home vs. professional cleaning*. . . .Apr

Safety hints, home*...........................Aug

Scissors, electric*...........................Sept

Seahorses for goldfish bowls..................Sept

Septic tanks, brief note on.....................July

Sewing machine, preparing for sewing. . Sept

Shoe polisher, electric*......................July

Shoes, boys' and men's sneakers*..............Mar

spike heels, and foot disabilities. . . Sept

damage to floors..............Jan 3; Feb

Aug

plastic heel protectors.................July

Shopping aids-price comparators*..............Aug

correction................................Sept

Skillets, electric (Dec. '61), correction. .. .Jan

Slide projectors*...................Feb 6; Aug

Starches, spray (Oct. '61), correction... .Jan

Sweaters with printed designs.................Sept

Tape recorders, stereo*.......................May

Television sets (Nov. '61), correction. .. .Jan

interference.................June 3; Aug

servicing...............................Aug

Tennis balls-supplemental report*.............Mar

Tires, automobile*............................Aug

Toaster-oven*....................................Mar

Tobacco, lead and arsenic content*...............May

Tooth paste advertising.........................Sept

Toothbrushes, electric..............Jan 3; Mar

Trading stamps. .. .June 4; July 4; Aug

Trailer heaters, danger of gas-fired*............Jan

Trash bag and holder, new type..................Sept

T-shirts for men*................................Apr

Typewriters, portable*...........................Apr

correction (Dec. '61, Apr. '62) . June

Vacation by auto, average costs.................Sept

Vacuum bottles*..................................Apr

Vacuum cleaners, 1962 models*....................Mar

Vitamins, excessive intake......................Sept

Wasp and bee stings, danger. .June 4; July

Watches, men's wrist*...........................June

radium-luminous dials, hazard.............June

Water purity, simple test*.......................Aug

Windows, storm, bait advertising................July

Windshield de-icing sprays*......................Jan

Zipper lubricants.................Apr 42; Sept





Cumulative index for January through December issues appears in December BULLETIN each year. Some reprints are listed on p. 33 of Apr. '62 issue.
Page 14:

Heathkit AC-11 Knight-Kit KS-10A

Stereo FM (multiplex) adapters

In June of 1961 the first F.C.C.-approved FM stereo broadcasts were transmitted over the airways. Stereo FM broadcasts promise to provide a good source for stereo listening and home recording (for individual enjoyment), to supplement the service of records and prerecorded tapes.

Some of the first stereo broadcasts were sent out over the combined facilities of a station broadcasting the same program in AM and FM. One stereo channel was transmitted over FM, the other over AM; full stereo reception was achieved by the use of two radio receivers or combined use of an FM tuner and an AM tuner feeding separate amplifiers and speakers. Monophonic reception of the stereo program was poor with this system, for only one channel of the music was received on AM or FM, with consequent deficiency in tonal quality and balance. Then, too, when both channels were received, for full stereo, the channel broadcast over the AM station lacked the wide frequency and dynamic response carried by the FM broad cast channel.

The new stereo transmissions are broadcast over a single FM station by a method known as multiplexing. The two stereo channels are sent out over the single station carrier frequency, and, at the receiving end, special electronic currents sort out the two sets of signals and separate them into the original left and right channels. If one does not have the necessary multiplex stereo circuits in his tuner or radio, the reception will be monophonic but with full frequency and dynamic range, with no degradation in sound.

Briefly, multiplexing works in the following manner: The original Left and Right (L & R) channels from stereo tape, records or micro-

phones are electronically combined into a L + R electrical signal and a L - R (L minus R) electrical signal, that is, into one electrical complex wave which is the sum of the two channels and another electrical wave which represents the difference between the two signals. The L - R and L + R signals are electronically modified and transmitted as a composite signal by the FM station.

The composite signal is received by the FM tuner and sent through the multiplex receiving circuits. At this point, many complex things happen but in essence the L + R signal and the L - R signal are separated, processed, and finally combined into pure L and R signals which are amplified by the stereo amplifier and reproduced by stereo loud-speakers.

If one does not have a stereo FM tuner, only the L + R signal is presented to the amplifier and the resulting sound will be a combination of the L and R signals which gives monophonic sound.

One of the first questions that arises is whether or not the existing mono FM tuner can be used to receive stereo, or will a new stereo tuner be required? Most manufacturers have made available stereo adapter units which are to be connected to a mono tuner. These adapters sell over a wide range of prices, and perform with varying degrees of success. However, most high-quality FM tuners can be adapted by the use of an FM adapter unit to give good FM stereo reception. Adapters cost from about $20, for a kit, to over $100, for some ready-made units. Due to the cost of the adapter and the need for a sensitive FM receiver, CR does not recommend the conversion of the average FM radio set or combination radio-phonograph to FM stereo reception.
Page 15:

One of the drawbacks to FM stereo (and for some listeners this will be a serious disadvantage) is that transmission of the multiplexed signal considerably reduces the radiated power of the FM station. Thus if you are receiving a barely adequate mono signal from a particular station, you probably will not receive satisfactory stereo transmission from the same station. It has been estimated that the effective range of an FM station is shrunk when broadcasting stereo by about 50 percent of its mono range, that is, a station which was received adequately on mono at a distance of 60 miles might be adequate on stereo only for listeners 30 miles away.

The use of a good FM antenna system will be a necessity with stereo FM, and in many instances the TV antenna will not be satisfactory. Modern TV antennas are designed for high efficiency only on TV channels 2 to 6 and 7 to 13. Between channel 6 and channel 7 there is considerable broadcast space which is rejected by many TV antennas, and it is a part of this space that is used by the FM band. (A well-designed "Yagi" antenna will likely prove best for stereo FM.)

Since the art of FM stereo reception is still new and several different circuits are used for decoding the multiplexed signal, and since refinements will undoubtedly be made in the near future, CR has decided to postpone testing of complete stereo FM tuners until things settle down. One has but to recall the situation with stereo pickup cartridges at the beginning, when new models appeared continually and obsolescence was early and rapid. The person who purchased too soon, during the novelty period, got an unsatisfactory cartridge that had no value at all when better ones began to appear on the market.

CR would recommend that music enthusiasts with good mono FM tuners should not discard them and purchase new stereo tuners; they would do better to follow the less expensive approach of purchasing a multiplex adapter.

The Heathkit AC-11 ($32.50, plus postage) and the Knight-Kit KS-10A ($19.95, plus postage) are kits which use similar circuit principles for "decoding" the multiplex signal.

'Bot'n kits are somewhat complex to construct; however, the instructions are well written and well illustrated. Thus a person

with a modest amount of mechanical and electrical experience can successfully assemble either one of these kits and be reasonably sure of building a working adapter. The Heathkit is somewhat more complicated, because of its additional circuit features.

An important feature for any adapter is some sort of indicator to signal the fact that a stereo signal is being received. (Only relatively few stations in any one area are broadcasting stereo at present, and some of these are transmitting stereo on a part-time basis.) Some adapters have a signal light (the preferable system). The two adapters tested had no light, but stereo programs could be identified as such by turning the separation control all the way counterclockwise. (This control on the Knight-Kit was relatively inaccessible.) With this setting, monophonic transmissions are silenced. Only sound from stereo transmissions will pass through the adapter to the amplifier and speaker, and be heard (thus indicating that the station is broadcasting stereo).

Both kits were easy to adjust by using a stereo FM station for a signal source. However, they worked fairly well only on strong FM stereo signals. The adapters must be allowed to warm up thoroughly before tuning in a station, for it was found that the oscillator circuits drifted during warm-up. However, once they were heated up fully (about

5 minutes), drift was no longer a problem.

B. Intermediate Heathkit AC-11 (Heath Co., Benton Harbor, Mich.) $32.50, plus postage. Relatively complex wiring, but easy to adjust. Adapter worked reasonably well, but only on strong FM signals. The stereo effect was satisfactory; noise and distortion were low on strong signals, but increased noticeably on weak signals.

Knight-Kit KS-10A (Allied Radio Corp., 100 N. Western Ave., Chicago 80) $19.95, plus postage. Somewhat easier to construct than the Heathkit AC-11; also easy to adjust. The adapter worked reasonably well, but only on strong FM signals. Stereo effect was satisfactory; noise and distortion were low on strong signals, but increased noticeably on weak signals as signal strength decreased. Separation control (used to adjust apparent separation or spread of sound from the speaker, and also to aid in locating stereo broadcasts, see text) is a screwdriver adjustment at the rear of the chassis (inconvenient).
Page 16:

High-oven electric ranges

Anything that is new and different and eyecatching has a good chance for success in this age of ours. Possibly this is because there is a large segment of the population which is led to believe, consciously or subconsciously, by means of a constant and overwhelming barrage of advertising, that the newest things are best, and most desirable. And if a new and different item is priced higher than other items of comparable utility, so much the better, for the price difference will make it certain that not everyone will be in a position to afford the luxury of the latest and best appliance or other product. Fortunately for Consumers' Research, there is another substantial segment of the population which takes a more practical point of view and wants to be informed about the performance characteristics and inherent disadvantages of new items, as well as the advantages extolled in the advertising and sales talks.

One of the principal advantages claimed for the high-oven range, introduced in 1958, is that it provides a modern built-in look without need for and the extra expense involved in building it in. It is just placed on its base (some models can be hung on the wall) and used in the space in which the old regular range stood before it was relegated to the junk pile or turned in on the new model. For the homemaker who values appearance above convenience, the claim of the built-in look is a true one, but she must be prepared to get used to certain inconveniences along with the "new look."

One of the inconvenient aspects of the new

ranges has to do with the problems when the burners and oven are in use at the same time. This difficulty was mentioned by many of the women on the staff of Consumers' Research while the ranges were undergoing laboratory tests. How do you get a 20-pound turkey out of the oven when the pots and pans on the four burners beneath are pouring forth hot steam and the other by-products of cooking and frying operations? While it can be done, it was certainly an easier job with the old-style range which had the oven beneath the surface cooking elements or burners.

Another question frequently asked had to do with stirring the contents of pots or pans located on rear burners that were well underneath the oven. Unfortunately, the engineer designing an oven-on-top range has the problem of keeping the oven and controls low enough so that they are reasonably accessible to housewives of less-than-average height. To do this, he may locate the cooking level about 4 inches below the normal 36-inch counter height and steal another 4 to 6 inches or more from the 18-inch minimum space that is usual between the top of the free-standing electric range and any cabinets that may be located above it. Thus it comes out that the oven is at a good height for a taller-than-normal person, and the cooking top location is well suited for a woman who is shorter than normal.

There are, of course, exceptions to this general picture. On the General Electric model, for example, the burners do not pull out, but are stationary. Thus, in order to

On ranges employing a pull-out cooking top (left), the housewife will have need for considerable strength in removing the Thanksgiving turkey from the oven. Note that the heavy weight is almost at shoulder height and that one naturally bends forward over the hot pots-with consequent risk of a burn-to obtain the needed leverage (the range pictured is the Westinghouse). With the General Electric Americana (right), the weight must be lifted from a still higher location, but at least one doesn't have to bend.
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make the rear elements reasonably accessible, the designers raised the oven a few inches above the normal level for the oven-on-top type of range. On the Tappan, the burner elements are located at normal counter height, but pull out, so that all the burners are out from under the bottom of the oven.

One problem brought about by the pull-cut drawer design is the extra floor space that must be provided to allow for the extension of the drawer when in its "out" position, where it extends 36 to 39 inches from the wall and thus is 11 to 14 inches farther from the wall than the front of the usual 25-inch deep counter. This characteristic would present few problems in a large kitchen-though it does indeed present a hazard to the heads of small children-but it could cause noticeable cramping of space and movement in a small kitchen. GE eliminated the problem by not having a drawer (this introduces other problems-see illustration on this page). Tappan got around it to a large extent by locating the burners in a single line along the rear of the drawer and mounting the rectangular section in front of the burners on hinges so that it can be dropped against the front of the base cabinet, if desired. This arrangement has the disadvantage that, with the front dropped, one cannot open the doors of the storage cabinet beneath the range.

Another feature that will also be of some concern to the housewife is the glass oven doors used on these ranges. A glass window in the oven door of a regular free-standing range is smaller and much lower, and therefore does not leave the oven interior, which one hasn't always had time to clean, fully accessible to the prying eyes of visitors. With a built-in oven or an oven-on-top range with a large clear-glass window, the homemaker must keep her oven clean if she wants to maintain her reputation as a diligent and fastidious housekeeper. Most manufacturers, aware of this objection to a large oven window, have taken steps to minimize the difficulty. Some imprint a design on the glass in the door so that the oven interior is not clearly visible (Frigidaire and Kenmore) or reduce the size of the "window" (General Electric). Westinghouse utilizes an almost opaque black glass which normally hides the interior but becomes sufficiently transparent when the

On the General Electric Americana, the two rear burners are beneath the overhanging oven. To stir the contents of pots or pans on these burners, the housewife has to reach over pots on the front burners with the possibility of burning an arm. It may also be rather inconvenient to remove a large pot from a rear burner, if there is another large pot in front of it, because of the small clearance (12-1/4 inches) between the burner and the bottom of the oven.

oven light is turned on. The interiors of the ovens in the Tappan are clearly visible.

There is another disadvantage due to the glass-window doors and their high placement. If one is using the oven and wishes to baste a roast or test a cake, the open door may extend into the kitchen well beyond the edge of the counter-top area (particularly true with large hinged doors). The door, of course, will always be at close to oven temperature on the side facing the oven. Unfortunately, it will, in addition, be very hot on the outside surface (a characteristic of glass windows) so that anyone in the kitchen will have to be very careful not to touch or accidentally brush against either side of the door with face, shoulders, or arms, particularly if the range is situated in a comer so that the door can be opened only 90 degrees. The spring-loaded lift-up doors on the Frigidaire Flair do not present this hazard, but when both are open it is impossible to adjust the controls. (However, if only the door of the
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The hinged oven doors used on all but the Frigidaire range present a hazard to the user when she removed hot pans from a hot oven, particularly if the side of the range is close to a wall. One could easily, though accidentally, brush a hand or arm against the very hot interior surface of the door at arrow and get a painful or severe burn.

large oven is open, the controls for the surface burners are accessible.)

The control panels and the controls used on the several ranges are similar in basic design to those found on regular ranges. On three of the ranges, the Frigidaire, Kenmore, and Tappan, all controls for the burner elements and oven are located on a long horizontal panel above the oven. This location is fine from the point of view of visibility, but the user must reach up to turn burners and the oven on and off. If the oven is in use, there is a possibility of burning oneself if the top of the oven door or the deflector panel used to direct heat from the oven vent (along the top of the door) is touched inadvertently. On the remaining two ranges, the General Electric and Westinghouse, the control panel is vertical (at the right of the oven), a somewhat preferable arrangement in our opinion. The Westinghouse control panel comprises oven and burner controls and clock; the General Electric, oven and clock. The burner controls for the General Electric are push buttons located next to the respective burners at the left and right sides of the cooking surface and about 2 inches above it.

Accessories

The oven-on-top range is definitely in the luxury class, because of its high price. The basic models, such as the General Electric 762 at $400, are equipped with 5-heat burners and a simple clock-timer control for the oven. If you are willing to spend more, you can pyramid the price of most basic models to well over $600 by adding such features as a thermal control burner, special extra-fast-heating surface elements, rotisseries, special broiling pans, built-in ventilating fans, a base cabinet with or without an extra oven, and other "extras," many of which may likely be found to add more to future maintenance problems and costs than they do to cooking performance and pleasure.

Another aspect of these ranges which must be considered before one decides on a purchase has to do with a condensation problem that is present with all makes but particularly noticeable with the GE 762 tested. If the oven is not in use and is cool (at normal room temperature), steam coming from a pot or pots located on the rear burners condenses on the oven bottom and all over the front of the oven door. In cooking whole potatoes, beets, and rutabagas, for example, which are boiled for 30 minutes to 1 hour or even more, the chances are that enough steam will be condensed to cause dripping of water back into the pots and upon the burner surface, a rather messy situation, and one not conducive to the best cookery. GE makes available, in a more expensive model, a built-in exhaust hood, which we believe may dispose of this problem.

All of the ranges successfully passed Consumers' Research's high-voltage breakdown test, which is intended to provide an indication of the probable durability and safety of the various electrical parts and wiring over a long period of use. The electrical leakage current present (a measure of the shock hazard) on all of the ranges was above the limit Consumers' Research normally sets for electrical appliances (1.0 milliampere) in general. Relatively high leakage, however, is a characteristic of all enclosed-tube-type heating elements used on modern ranges, and is an important reason for making certain that the frame of any range is connected to ground through the neutral lead of the three-wire
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236-volt service connection (or to a separate electrical ground if the neutral-lead ground is not permitted by the local electrical code). With the frame grounded, any leakage current present flows to ground and does not, therefore, present a hazard.

Interlock switches were present in three of the four ranges which had the cooking elements mounted on pull-out drawers so that elements could not be turned on if covered when the "drawer" was shut. There was, however, nothing to prevent the user from closing the "drawer" when the elements were hot, after use.

The prices given do not include the bases, which are available for all models tested. Prices for matching steel bases run from $50 up. Range hoods, to be mounted on top of the oven, are about $75 and higher. Wattages given were measured at 236 volts input to each range. It should be noted, too, that the ovens in the better built-in models and in the free-standing ranges last tested were preferable to any of the oven-on-top models tested, in respect to performance in broiling meats.

A. Recommended Frigidaire Flair Custom Imperial, 40 inch (Frigidaire Div., General Motors Corp., Dayton 1, Ohio) $560. For base mounting. Includes "meat-tender" thermometer and large aluminum combination roaster and broiler pan.

Description: Two-oven model with all controls on a panel above the ovens. Two cooking elements located at rear corners of drawer, two at front central location. Range is 40 in. wide, 35 in. high, and 25 in. deep. Burner elements, 32 in. from the floor; center of oven, 45 in. from the floor. One 6-in. 1400-watt element, one 6-in. "speed-heat" element (2325 watts at high setting for 40 sec., then 1100 watts), one 8-in. 2450-watt element, one 8-in. 2425-watt temperature-controlled element.

Oven volumes: left, 1.6 cu. ft.; right, 2.7 cu. ft. Removable rack guides with 5 rack positions and 2 racks in both ovens. Oven interiors have polished-chrome finish. Drawer, when open, is 38 1/2 in. from the wall.

Performance: Surface elements-efficiencies of all burners in use of electricity were below average; time to boil, average, except for thermal-control-led element which took longer than average. Left oven-time to preheat to 500°, 12 min. Comparative oven efficiencies in use of electricity, low. Biscuit baking, satisfactory. (The left oven is for baking only.) Right oven-time to preheat to 500°, min. Comparative efficiency, high. Biscuit baking, good. Speed of broiling and evenness of heat distribution from broiler element, satisfactory.

Construction and design: Judged good. There were several things about this range which gave one the impression that construction had not been skimped to meet a price and that much thought had gone into the design to provide a functionally satisfactory product. Some good features worth noting are: 1) ease of cleaning the oven interiors (must be done with care because of polished-chrome lining), the burner elements, and the range in general-little fancy trim, mostly smooth surfaces, 2) the spring-loaded oven doors which lift up, and thus 3) make it possible for the oven bottoms to be located only 3 in. above counter-top level (7 in. above burners), 4) the rugged construction of the oven racks, 5) separate indicating lights for burners, 6) separate interlock switches make front burner elements usable with drawer partly closed, 7) elements are "out of sight" when drawer is closed, 8) fairly good legibility of markings on all controls, 9) convenient placement of the drawer release. Some features which could be improved: 1) the oven timing device-instructions on panel are not fully adequate, 2) oven thermostat controls have a 500° marking but can't be set to that position

Cleaning the burners of the Westinghouse (left) is a comparatively simple job. The surface element is simply removed (it plugs in) and the reflector drip-pan is all there is to wash. The raised outer ring is an integral part of the cooking top. On many other ranges, as on the right, the surface element is lifted or twisted at an angle and the reflector drip-pan, the trivet, if one is used, and the ring are removed for washing, often with some difficulty.
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(relatively unimportant), 3) the need to reach over and close to pots or pans in using the ovens (but see advantage No. 3 preceding).

Tappan Fabulous "400," Model 441BG, 40 inch(The

Tappan Co., Mansfield, Ohio) $530. For wall or base mounting. Includes "roast meter," and full-length cutting board.

Description: Double-oven model with all controls above ovens. Cooking elements in single line on pull-out drawer. Range is 40 in. wide, 33 in-high, 25 1/44 in. deep. Burner elements, 36 in. from the floor; center of oven, 52 in. from the floor. Three 6-in. 1400-watt elements, one 8-in. 2450-

watt temperature-controlled element. Large oven on left, 2.5 cu. ft., for baking or broiling, has 3 rack guides for 6 rack positions; 2 racks,

1 reversible. Small oven on right, 1.5 cu. ft., for baking, has 3 rack guides (3 rack positions) and 2 racks. Oven interiors are gray, baked porcelain. Ease of cleaning, satisfactory. Drawer, when open, is 38 1/2 in. from the wall; open oven door extends 43 1/4 in. from the wall.

Performance: Surface elements-efficiencies, above average. Time to boil, faster than average. Left oven-time to preheat to 500°, 7% min. Comparative efficiency, average. Biscuit baking, satisfactory. Speed of broiling, average. Evenness of heat distribution in broiler, satisfactory. Right oven-time to preheat to 500°, 12 min. Comparative efficiency, low. Biscuit baking, satisfactory. Right oven is for baking only.

Construction and design: J udged good. There were several things a'bout this range which gave one the impression that construction had not been skimped to meet price, and that much thought had gone into the design to provide a functionally satisfactory product. Some good features worth noting are: 1) the oven interior was finished in porcelain, with no chrome areas which require care in cleaning, 2) the placement of the utility outlets (grounding 3-prong type), 3) the cutting board in front of the burners, 4) the in-line placement of the burners eliminates any need to each over hot utensils to reach burners at the rear, 5) elements are "out of sight" when drawer is closed. Some features which could be improved: 1) the release button for the drawer, 2) the placement of the red indicating lines on the controls (they should be moved 90° so that the hand does not, at times, hide the lines), 3) the placement of the "start time" knob on the oven timer.

The Model 441BG tested has very recently been replaced by a new model which is similar in most respects, except that the burner elements all now have continuously-variable (stepless) controls rather than the 7-step-type control used on 3 burners of the test sample. Consumers' Research has a slight preference for the older (step) control in any range.

Westinghouse Continental, Model KCC30, 30 inch

(Westinghouse Electric Corp., Mansfield, Ohio) About $400 in the East, $450 in the West. For base mounting. Equipment on test sample includes rotisserie and temperature-controlled 8-in. burner.

Description.- Single-oven model with all controls at the right side of the oven. Four cooking elements, 2 on each side of drawer top. Range is 30-in. wide, 31% in. high, 25% in. deep. Burner elements, 32 in. from floor; oven, 50}4 in. from floor. Two 6-in. 1500-watt elements, two 8-in. 2500-watt elements. Oven volume, 2.7 cu. ft. Removable oven-rack guides with 5 rack positions; 2 racks. Oven has polished-chrome finish. Drawer extends 36J^ in. from the wall; oven door extends 423^ in. from the wall.

Performance: Surface elements-efficiencies of small and large burners, below average. Time to boil, average. Oven-time to preheat, 11 min. Comparative efficiency, average. Biscuit baking, good. Speed of broiling, satisfactory. Evenness of heat distribution in broiling, satisfactory.

Construction and design: Judged good. Some good features worth noting are: 1) ease of cleaning oven (but must be done with care because of polished-chrome lining), 2) ease of cleaning surface burners, 3) the wide storage shelf at the rear between burners and oven, 4) legibility of burner and oven control markings, 5) the semi-transparent window in the oven door (see text), 6) front elements usable with drawer in closed position (interlock switch cuts out covered rear burners only). Some features which could be improved : 1) the release latch for the burner drawer, 2) spaces between grid wires on the oven racks are too large, 3) readability of the clock and small oven-timer dials (they should be similar to the other control markings, with black letters on a white background), 4) the oven light needs a protective guard or should be located in a recess in the right wall of the oven, 5) the fluorescent light needs a protective guard. KWith respect to dis-
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advantage No. 3, recent production employs the desirable black numbers and markings.

B. Intermediate General Electric Americana, Model 762W, 30 inch

(General Electric Co., Louisville, Ky.) About $400. For wall or base mounting. Base, with or without separate oven, is available.

Description: Single-oven model with oven controls and timer at right side of oven. Push-button burner controls are functionally placed at each side of cooking top and cooking elements are well located on cooking surface. Range is 30 in. wide, 35}/2 in. high, 273^ in. deep. Burner elements,

343^ in. from floor; oven, 56 in. from floor. One 6-in. 1200-watt element, one 6-in. 1500-watt element, one 8-in. 2000-watt element, one 8-in. 3000-watt element. Oven volume, 2.7 cu. ft. Removable rack guides with 4 rack positions; 2 racks. Oven interior, gray, baked-porcelain finish with removable chrome finish panel at rear. Oven door, when open, extends to a point 42 in. from the rear wall.

Performance: Surface elements-efficiencies of 1500-and 2000-watt elements, above average; of 1200-and 3000-watt elements, average. Time to boil, 1500- and 3000-watt elements, faster than average; 1200- and 2000-watt elements, average. Oven-time to preheat, 17 min. Comparative efficiency, high. Biscuit baking, good. Speed of broiling, average. Evenness of heat distribution, fair to satisfactory.

Construction and design: Judged fair to satisfactory. Some good features worth noting are: 1) ease of cleaning oven and burner sections, 2) legibility of markings and ease of use of push-button burner controls, 3) the oven controls and clock-timer are easy to use and well thought out. Some features which could be improved or are disadvantageous: 1) the handle on the oven door is rather small and inconvenient to grasp, 2) the oven is comparatively high (see illustration), 3) the comparative inaccessibility of pots and pans 011 rear burners, 4) condensation problems 011 the model tested (see text), 5) the single light, which indicates one or more surface burners are turned on, is hidden when pots or pans are on the range.

The latest production of this range, which became available about September 1, is similar in most respects to the model tested. However, the right front burner is now rated at 2600 watts (3000 on the model tested) and the burner trim

rings are integral rather than separate, a desirable improvement.

Kenmore Classic, Model 101-902620, 30 inch (Sears Cat. No. H90262) $279.95, plus shipping. For base mounting. Base, with or without separate oven, is available.

Description: Single-oven model with all controls above oven. Four cooking elements, 2 on each side of drawer top. Range is 30 in. wide, 35M in. high, 25 in. deep. Burner elements, 32 in. from

the floor; oven, 51 in. from the floor. Three 6-in. 1150-watt elements, one 8-in. 1950-watt element. Oven volume, 3.2 cu. ft. Removable oven rack guides with 4 rack positions; 2 racks. Oven interior is gray, baked porcelain at top, bottom, and sides; rear is chromed. Drawer extends 35% in. from the wall; oven door extends 33% in. from the wall.

Performance: Surface elements-efficiencies of small burners, average; of large burner, above average. Time to boil, average. Oven-time to preheat, 1% min. Comparative oven efficiency, average. Biscuit baking, good. Speed of broiling, satisfactory. Evenness of heat distribution in broiling, fair to satisfactory.

Construction and design: Judged satisfactory. Some good features worth noting are: 1) the legibility of the control-knob markings, 2) the visibility of the separate indicating lights for each burner and the oven is very good, 3) simple drawer catch and release, 4) double (French) door on oven, 5) ease of cleaning oven. Some features which could be improved: 1) steel top of cooking surface should be reinforced at the center, 2) the burners are relatively difficult to clean, 3) the sloping steel piece beneath the control knobs should be better heat-insulated (it's easy to burn one's hand accidentally in turning a control), 4) all burners are usable whether the drawer is out or in; with " in " position there was considerable condensation on the oven bottom and front when pots or pans with boiling water were on rear burners (see listing of General Electric Americana), 5) the ease with which the cooking top and burner can be cleaned should be improved, 6) timed outlet is not conveniently placed, 7) oven thermostat calibration should show hundreds (not just 2, 3, 4, and 5), 8) the need to change the oven function control from preheat to bake setting is a disadvantage (if one forgets to reset it, the results with biscuits or cake are pretty sad), 9) the burner placement-the burners are rather close to the sides of the range.
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TIRE GAUGES

In order to obtain maximum tire life, it is very important to maintain tires at or above their recommended inflation pressures. Overloading, underinflation, and high speed are the chief enemies of tire life. It has been found that a 4 pounds per square inch underinflation on a tire with a recommended pressure of 24 pounds per square inch shortens tread life by 25 percent or around 7000 miles; a 4 pounds per square inch overinflation increases tread life about 15 to 20 percent (with corresponding loss of riding qualities). Many drivers tolerate such a degree of underinflation that they may get only 12,000 to 14,000 miles out of their tires when they could be getting two or three times that much.

Most drivers rely upon service stations to check the pressure of their tires, but unfortunately the gauges, air hose pressure indicators, and pressure control devices used by many service stations are inaccurate or carelessly applied by the attendants, with the result that tires are often inflated several pounds over or under the pressure specified for the car and tire.

One recent survey indicated that 51 percent of service-station tire gauges were inaccurate and 33 percent dangerously inaccurate, that is, to an extent that would result in definite harm to the tires.

The car owner who wants to obtain maximum mileage from his tires with minimum risk of failure should use a gauge of known accuracy and be sure to use it with proper care. It is easy to get a very inaccurate reading unless the rubber l ing or seat in the gauge is set squarely on the tire valve stem, so that air does not leak at the point of application.

Tire gauge designs leave much to be desired. Such an instrument should be convenient to use and easy to read. It should also be strong, compact, and have good resistance to corrosion, entrance of dirt, and rough handling. To merit an A-Recommended rating, Consumers' Research believes that it should be accurate to within 4 percent, which corresponds to a 1 pound per square inch error on a tire intended to be inflated to 24 pounds.

A tire-pressure gauge costs little, but if it is a poor one, as most tire gauges are, it can cost its owner a good deal in shortened tire life. Tires are designed to carry maximum allowable loads at pressures not below figures recommended by the National Tire and Rim Association. Some automobile manufacturers, however, in order to improve the riding qualities of their cars, recommend lower pressures is the effect is to cause overloading of the tires. Overloading due to pressures below normal shortens tire life and reduces the safety factor in a tire, sometimes to a dangerous extent.

The correct tire pressure depends on the weight carried by the tire (and this is markedly affected by the load carried in the car, especially with small cars, and for such cars the correct tire pressure may be much lower for front tires than for those at the rear- on Renault, VW, and Corvair, for example). The correct pressure depends also on the size of the tire. A moderately excessive tire pressure does no harm, may indeed be desirable, where easy, soft riding qualities are not important; on the other hand, tire pressures that are too low can shorten tire life greatly, and impair the handling qualities and safety of a car.

All in all, it will pay to buy a tire gauge with care. If it is inaccurate, it may cost many times the amount paid for it, in reduced tire life

Tire pressures should preferably be checked at least once a month. The recommended pressure for a given tire on a given car applies when the tire is cold. The temperature of a tire increases enough in a very few miles to raise the air pressure 1 or 2 pounds, and after a long hard drive pressures may be 5 pounds or more above the pressure when the tire is "cold." This extra pressure should never be "bled" from the tire.

The tire gauges studied by CR were tested
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for accuracy in their original "as received" condition by comparison with a calibrated dial-type pressure gauge. The tire gauges were next tumbled for half an hour in a box containing vacuum cleaner sweepings and then retested to note the effects of rough handling and dirt on their accuracy. The gauges were checked several times under the various conditions at 15, 20, 25, 30, and 40 pounds per square inch pressure, and ratings are based primarily upon their ability to give repeated correct readings at different pressures, and upon the ease and reliability with which the gauges could be read. Tests were made to determine errors of the gauges when held in both tip-up and tip-down positions, since any tire gauge may be used in various positions.

When CR tested tire gauges about 7 years ago, six out of 12 gauges were found good enough in all respects to warrant an A-Recommended rating. In the current test, only one gauge out of 13 brands was found satisfactory. Apparently there has been great deterioration in quality of tire gauges. Perhaps the testing of the gauges produced is being skimped, not sufficiently checked by supervisory personnel. It may be that car owners do not use gauges much any more, and tend to leave the checking of pressures to their garage or service station. This tendency probably stems from the fact that modern tubeless tires are highly impermeable and usually lose very little air, even over a period of months, so that car owners make much less

use of gauges than they did a few years back when air pressure fell off rather quickly, in many cases.

As a matter of interest, CR tested a 20-year-old dial-type pocket gauge (a type apparently no longer sold) and found it to be superior to any of 12 C-rated gauges in the present test, and well worthy of an A rating. Such a gauge has marked advantages; we hope that at least one manufacturer may get back into production on the more sensitive and easily readable dial-type tire gauges.

All of the gauges tested, except as noted in the listings, were of the pencil type, and were fitted with pocket clips.

A. Recommended Schrader, No. SC5CA (A. Schrader's Son, Div. Scovill Mfg. Co., Brooklyn 38, N. Y.)$2.20.

Shorter and thicker than typical "pencil" gauge; no pocket clip. Length, 3J^ in. Range, 16 to 37 lb. per sq. in. (satisfactory range for most, but not all, passenger car tires) in 1-lb. increments. Flat metal plunger with markings on each face. White figures on dark background made the gauge fairly easy to read, but it was somewhat inconvenient to use as the numbers on the scale were upside down when gauge was on the tire. The only gauge tested whose errors were consistently within the 4% limit, plus or minus.

C. Not Recommended Acme, No. 510 (Acme Air Appliance Co., Inc., Hackensack, N. J.; Wards Cat. No. 61-5685) $1.25, plus postage. Length, 5% in. Range, 8 to 40 lb. in 1-lb. increments. White nylon plastic square plunger with identical clear black markings

Testing tire gauges

Dead-weight tester for calibrating master gauge is shown at the left.
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Note that some gauges have figures that are upside down in relation to others and that on some gauges it is far more difficult to read figures or graduations than on others. Scales of graduations on some are clear and sharp and easily read. Gauges C and D are best for readability; widely spaced figures and graduation marks help greatly to make a scale readable under unfavorable light conditions. Gauge E is difficult to read because of its very compressed scale (the space between 1-pound graduations is about 4 times as large on D as on E).

on all four sides. Easily read. Errors were relatively large with gauge in tip-down position.

All State, No. 1076 (Sears Cat. No. 28-1076) 79c, plus postage. Length, 5% in. Range, 10 to 40 lb. in 1-lb. increments. Flat metal plunger with markings on each face that were hard to read. Errors were relatively large at some pressures.

All State Professional Type, No. 1078 (Sears Cat. No. 28-1078) $1.23, plus postage. Same gauge as Acme No. 510.

Bridgeport, No. 400 (Bridgeport Brass Co., Bridgeport 2, Conn.) $2.70. Length, 5% in. Range, 5 to 50 lb. in 1-lb increments. Square white nylon plunger with identical black markings on all four sides. Easily read. Errors were above the allowable amount when the gauge was in tip-down position (two samples).

G. M., No. 55 (G. M. Co. Manufacturing Inc., Long Island City, N. Y.) 95c. Length, 5% in. Range,

6 to 53 lb. in 1-lb. increments. Flat metal plunger with black markings on each face. (Lacked projecting pin for releasing air from tire.) One sample was defective as received; the other had very large errors and the errors were variable.

Jumbo, No. 400 (The Pep Boys, well known coast-to-coast chain auto stores) $1.29. Same as All State No. 1076.

Riverside (Wards Cat. No. 61-5684) 79c, plus

postage. Same as All State 1076.

Schrader, No. 7750T (A. Schrader's Son, Div. of Scovill Mfg. Co.) $2.70. Length, 6 in. Range,

4 to 50 lb. in 1-lb. increments. Square metal plunger with clear black figures and markings spiraling around the sides (i.e., the four sides were marked 4, 8, 12, etc.; 5, 9, 13, etc.; 6, 10, 14, etc.; and 7, 11, 15 etc.). Easy to read, but somewhat inconvenient, as numbers on scale were upside down with gauge on tire. Errors were relatively large.

Syracuse, No. 211-D (Syracuse Gauge Co., Inc., Syracuse; distributed by Penn Jersey Auto Stores, Inc., Eastern auto supplies chain) $1.39. Length, 5%. Range, 2 to 50 lb. in 1-lb. increments. Square white plunger with black markings on all four sides. Difficult to read; some of the markings were not legible. Relatively large errors at some pressures.

Tru-Flate 702 (Tru-Flate, Inc., Oakland 3, Calif.) $5.45. A large service-station-type gauge. Length,

11 in. Range, 10 to 120 lb. in 1-lb. increments. Flat metal plunger. Difficult to read because of compressed scale (about 45 divisions to the inch). Large errors as received. (The gauge had an adjustment device whereby it could be set to give fairly accurate readings at any one setting and at pressures close to that setting. However, errors elsewhere on the scale would not be corrected by this adjustment.)

Westline, No. A6761 (Distributed by Western Auto Associate Stores, a national chain) $1.15. Same as All State No. 1076.

Wizard, No. A6763 (Western Auto Associate Stores) $1.62. Same as Acme No. 510.
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A further look at popular breakfast cereals

A discussion of misleading claims made for some brands, with some good advice on nutrition, and a special note on whole-grain cereals

Dr. Phillip L. White of the American Medical Association's department of food and nutrition seriously questioned the truthfulness of cereal advertising, in a recent talk before an association of home economists. Manufacturers of breakfast cereals argue in print over which brand has the most protein, but all of them are relatively unimportant sources of protein, and protein is the most important by far of food ingredients, from the standpoint of consumers' health and sense of well-being. As Dr. White commented, it takes 10 servings of a typical breakfast cereal to equal the protein value of a single hamburger. One "superior" breakfast food claims "more all-around nutrition than meat, eggs, milk, bread, fruits, or vegetables," and is highly recommended by its manufacturer as the ideal food for "a hustle-bustle meal" "for breakfast skimpers." Formulated for "the hit and run eater," for one who "breezes through breakfast," it is claimed to give "more zest for living to all ages."

Unfortunately its manufacturer is either uninformed, or hazy in his appreciation of the importance of a good diet not too high in carbohydrates, for he offers his product with sugar added, and sugar is an undesirable addition, especially when it is added by the manufacturer, rather than by the consumer at his own breakfast table. Presumably the adding of sugar is to accommodate the breakfast eater who is so much on a hit-and-run basis that he can't even take the time to spoon his own sugar out of a sugar bowl. (He would do well to leave it in the bowl!) This instance may tend to convince many that breakfast cereal manufacturers are less than reliable as nutritional advisers. There is no such thing as a breakfast cereal which is better or pro-

Previous articles on breakfast cereals appeared in November 1961 and February and March 1962 Bulletins.

". . .being fat [a cause of diabetes] increases the need of the body for insulin. . . . Over-indulgence in foods of all kinds is dangerous and sweets are particularly harmful."

from A Primer for Diabetic Patients, by Russell M. Wilder, M.D.

All breakfast cereals and other foods made chiefly from grain are predominantly carbohydrate and are undersirable except when consumed in limited quantities. Addition of sugar, honey, or other concentrated carbohydrates to cereals during their manufacture presents special dangers to health, not only to those who may be diabetic, but to others as well. The reason we all consume carbohydrate foods is not that they are good for health but because they are an inexpensive means of obtaining the needed calorie intake. The following, on this head, is quoted from Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease (Doctors Michael G. Wohl and Robert S. Goodhart, editors) in a chapter by Doctors Samuel Soskin and R. Levine, both specialists in medical nutrition.

"The highly refined grains and sugars, developed commercially largely because of their resistance to spoilage, are the cheapest sources of calories generally available. But they have been deprived of most of the protective elements with which they are naturally endowed; hence a casually selected high-carbohydrate diet is likely to be poor in the essential amino acids, vitamins, and minerals."

vides for more "all-around nutrition" than meat and eggs, as the advertising claimed.

In our view, no one who adds sugar to a
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breakfast cereal in manufacture should ever set himself up as a nutritional adviser to consumers. Unfortunately, as we noted in our February 1962 article, a federal government bureau in effect recommended sugar-coated cereals and favored the "enticing new varieties now offered," principally because this agency considered it as part of its duty to promote the consumption of cereal products, and such consumption would be increased by the fact that consumers like the taste of sugar. (A government agency's first concern should be whether added sugar is good for your health.)

Whole-grain cereals

Many persons have expressed surprise at our comments on the undesirability, for many, of whole-grain breakfast cereals. We have good reason to believe that the very low sale of whole-wheat bread reflects a sound reaction, at least partially unconscious, on the part of the ultimate consumer, for, according to reliable technical reports, people do not find whole grain "so comfortable" in their digestive processess. Attempts by Herbert Hoover's Commission for Relief in Belgium during World War I, on the advice of nutritionists, to feed whole-wheat bread to people in Europe not used to it, brought about an increase in stomach and intestinal disease.

It is better for health and pocketbook to add your own sugar at the breakfast table, if you require sweetening, than to buy cereal with the sugar or other sweeteners "built in" by the food factory. Most people use far too much sugar, and for them gradual tapering off is desirable and possible, provided they do their own sweetening of their breakfast cereal at the table. With children especially, the use of pre-sweetened cereals is nutritionally quite objectionable. (See articles in CR Bulletin of Feb., Mar., Aug., Nov., 1961.)

A change in the milling ratio to decrease the bran content of the bread was followed promptly by betterment of the general health of the population. Even the hog does not seem to be able to handle too much roughage successfully, and modem man has a digestive system that, by comparison, must be called a delicate one.

Dr. Jolliffe, late head of the Bureau of Nutrition of the New York City Department of Health, said that bread made from nearly-whole-wheat, or "high extraction" flour would be "dark to black and unacceptable esthetically, gustatorily and intestinally to a great number of people. Nutritionally this method [use of the dark bread] seems preferable." Dr. Jolliffe doubted that extensive public health education and publicity could make dark bread acceptable to a majority of the American people. (Greater consumption of whole-grain products is generally encouraged by nutritionists, who, with rather rare exceptions, do not have medical training or clinical experience.)

One-quarter of the total strontium 90 content of a sample of wheat was found to be in the bran, a fact which involves a strong suggestion that consumers might find it wise to prefer the more nutritive parts of the grain and that they should not favor bran and whole-grain breakfast foods at the present time, especially for consumption by young children.

It is worthy of note that the extensive advertising of cold cereals has been very successful. An economist writing on this subject remarks that cereal manufacturers aim to convince a juvenile market that strength and integrity are inherent in their product. The fact that they have succeeded undoubtedly explains why cold cereals account for 85 percent of the sales in retail breakfast food departments (cereal manufacturers spent about

5 percent of their gross sales income for advertising, more than any other group of food manufacturers).

An item in Advertising Age, reporting a survey of the views of nearly 9000 homemakers, indicates that about 70 percent have bought packaged products which they consider to have misrepresented the merchandise. They estimated that mislabeling had cost them close to $40 a year (though any such
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There are many objections raised by consumers against the 2 cents off technique in package labeling. It's a selling trick that puts consumers at a disadvantage they cannot overcome without going to a quite impractical amount of time and trouble. There are, very recently, hints in the trade press that this unsporting practice may be abandoned, as having outlived its usefulness as a competitive sales device and consumer-conf user.

Note the fine print, which appears only on the top of the package: "This price includes 2 cents off". (The top panel on the package is shown at the right above, and the quoted statement is printed near the far right, lower corner.) Some customers have annoyed supermarket managers by insisting upon 2 cents off the marked, "net" price, on such packages.

estimate must be regarded as crudely approximate at best). The things that they were opposed to are: claims on packages too extravagant, wording on labels written down at people as though they were children, worthless guarantees, and the marking of products X cents off, when the customer is never told what the original price was.

The complaint about the X cents off came up time and time again in the hearings held by Senator Philip A. Hart's subcommittee of the Committee on the Judiciary. There seems to be little evidence that the statements are false, but it is known that in some cases the "X cents off" price is just the regular price with a price-baiting twist to it, and in one striking case 7 cents off had been applied to a product that had never been sold before, and therefore had no established price from which a reduction could be made. Consumers strongly resent the "cents off" technique, chiefly, perhaps, because the manufacturer has left them in a position where they cannot judge the truth or falsity of the claim. Manufacturers and packaging experts have no right to expect the housewife to carry around with her a knowledge of what somebody's cereals or cake mixes cost last week or six months ago in the 5-ounce or 14-ounce package, and if she does not have that knowledge, the X cents off is capable of being interpreted as a form of business trickery which anyone has the right to object to.

The Credit Union National Association (P.O. Box 431, Madison 1, Wis.) gives good advice on cereal buying. First that one should not buy by the size (bulk) of the package, but by weight. (The declared weight is sometimes hard to find, but it is always there.) Sometimes the larger box contains less food (is slack filled, or may provide less food per cent, and a homemaker's tendency to buy by bulk of the package may cost her real money). Hot cereals cost less and are usually better nutritionally. Buying cereals in individual packs is very expensive, for such packs cost over twice as much as the same brand in the larger package. If you take your breakfast cereal sugared, add the sugar yourself; it is cheaper that way [and you retain control over the amount added]. All of these points are sound and well taken.

A specialist on allergy advises against using combinations of related foods, such as "mixed cereals" that contain flour or meal of several different grains. This point may be especially important for young children. The child's diet is made as diversified as possible from the start, using individual cereal grains and other starchy foods instead of mixtures of two or more of these. Oats, rice, barley, rye, wheat, and corn, as well as potato, sweet potato, tapioca, and arrowroot are best used in rotation so that no one is repeated more frequently than once in four days.

Rice as a breakfast cereal

A reader has suggested that we call attention to the desirability of rice as a breakfast cereal. An authority in the field of nutrition suggests that whole rice is a practical source of food only for rural populations in rice growing countries, as it is at its best for only a short time after its harvesting.
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The Wheatena people and a few others set an example of package filling that other breakfast cereal manufacturers should heed. This is one of a very few cereal packages the manufacturer really tried to fill to the top.

(The vitamins and fats are present in the highest concentrations in the parts of the grain which are removed in processing, and it is these substances that encourage the multiplication of bacteria and insects, so that natural rice tends to become rancid within a few weeks.) Polished rice, which is more easily stored without marked deterioration, has largely replaced the unpolished rice, but should not be a major part of the diet; when so used it is likely to produce nutritional deficiencies. Indeed, it will have lost about 80 percent of its thiamine value, and where it is used in large quantities, it leads to nutritional deficiencies unless it has been "enriched" with thiamine, niacin, and iron. (These, however, are not the only important "accessory" factors that have been lost in milling.)

"In man, too, the daily requirement for thiamine is related to the consumption of carbohydrate; a person eating a high carbohydrate diet requires more thiamine than one consuming mainly fat and protein." [Doctors George H. Bell, J. Norman Davidson, and Harold Scarborough in Textbook of Physiology and Biochemistry]

The vitamin is believed to play an important role in energy utilization by the human heart, and symptoms of vitamin B deficiency are often evident in the heart and circulatory systems.

The popular pretreated rice, which can be cooked more rapidly than ordinary rice, is high in price and, on that account, its use by the average family is perhaps not justified. Most Europeans feel that highly modified packaged

foods are uneconomical and undesirable. The uncritical acceptance of highly processed and partially cooked or pre-cooked cereals and foods is peculiarly an American characteristic; Europeans and South Americans have a generally conservative or wait-and-see attitude toward all innovations in foodstuffs. The American homemaker who takes her family's food problems seriously will follow a similar policy, so far as practicable.

The washing of packaged rice before cooking is undesirable because it removes nutritive values, particularly thiamine, which is the vitamin most likely to be missing or insufficient in the typical American diet. (Packaged rice is cleaner than that which is sold in bulk.) It is also a good policy not to rinse off rice after cooking to separate the grains. Even rapid washing of brown rice causes the loss of about 10 percent of its original vitamin Bi (thiamine) (20 percent in the case of partially polished rice). For best nutrition, add no more water than necessary, and use a double boiler, since high temperatures at the bottom surface of the pot tend to increase vitamin losses. According to research done in Arkansas, rice proteins are nearly three times as valuable for growth as enriched white flour made from wheat.

Rice is enriched by one of two methods: one makes the vitamins resistant to rinsing; rice prepared by the other method is required to be labeled "do not rinse before or drain after cooking."

The following list supplements information given in our March 1962 article. It includes brands of breakfast foods on which our studies could not be completed at that time because not all needed information had been assembled. The ingredients that are considered undesirable in a breakfast food, especially for use by children, are printed in italics (e.g., sugar, which if to be added at all, should be added at the table; preservatives; and artificial coloring).

In some eases where there may be doubt as to the undesirability of certain ingredients, these have not been set in italic type (sodium acetate, for example).

Products that are considered to be of relatively desirable composition as breakfast cereals go are signalized by use of a star symbol (*).
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Prices given, and used as the basis for calculation of the cost of a cereal in cents per 100 calories, are necessarily approximate and subject to some variation. The prices given herein are those charged by supermarket grocery stores in an area close to Easton, Pennsylvania.

If any substantial errors are found, we shall be glad to have them brought to our attention.

'ArBest Foods' H-0 Cream enriched farina. 14 oz., 23c. Farina, iron phosphate, niacin, thiamine (vitamin Bi), and riboflavin. Net weight marking, small (overpowered by the very large and heavy print of the brand name). Ingredients marking, small, considering the great amount of package space available and used for sales message and recipes. Calories per oz., not given (should be). A letter from the company gives the figure as 102. Cost, cents per 100 calories, 1.6. Slack fill, 21%.

* Best Foods' H-0 Quick Oats. 1 lb., 22c. ("Whole grain [1] cereal rich in vitamin Bi.") Net weight marking, relatively legible. Calories per oz., not given (should be). A letter from the company gives the figure as 107. Cost, cents per 100 calories, 1.3. Slack fill, 20%.

General Mills Cheerios. 7 oz., 20c. ("The oat cereal ready to eat." Oat flour, wheat starch, salt, sugar, sodium phosphate, calcium carbonate, artificial coloring, iron, niacin, thiamine, and riboflavin. (no added preservative.) Net weight marking, clear and well placed. Ingredients marking of fair size but not placed to stand out. (But very large space was available for pictures and sales message.) Calories per oz., not given (should be). A letter from the company gives the figure as 114. Cost, cents per 100 calories, 2.5. Slack fill, 21%.

* Grocery Store Products Co.'s Cream ol Rice. 1 lb. 2

oz., 40c. Granulated rice, vitamins Bi, riboflavin, niacin, and iron. Net weight marking, small and inconspicuous. Ingredients well presented, but small, considering great amount of package space available for sales message. Calories per oz., not given (should be). A letter from the company gives the figure as 100. Cost, cents per 100 calories, 2.2. Slack fill, 31%.

Maltex's Maypo oat cereal. 1 lb. 4 oz., 37c. Oats, flour, sugar, maple syrup and imitation maple flavor. Net weight marking, relatively legible, but in an inconspicuous place. Ingredients not

[1] See page 26 and also November 1961 Bulletin at page 24, on certain undesirable effects that may follow from the presence of bran in breakfast cereals and from the overuse of whole-grain products.

{21 See November 1961 Bulletin, page 24, on the nutritional disadvantages of bran.

well presented (small type), considering the amount of package space available and used for sales messages. Calories per oz., according to information supplied in answer to a letter, 107 (not given on package, as it should be). Cost, cents per 100 calories, 1.7. Slack fill, 8%.

Nabisco 100% Bran. 1 lb., 29c. ("Natural laxative cereal.") 100% bran [2], sugar, salt, malt extract, and added fig and prune juice, (no added preservative.) Contains vitamin Bi, phosphorus, iron. Net weight marking, relatively legible. List of ingredients well presented, but small, considering great amount of package space available and used for sales message and recipes. Calories per oz., not given (should be). Company did not furnish the information on calories per oz. when requested to do so. Slack fill, 26%.

Nabisco Rice Honeys. 8^2 oz., 25c. ("The Original honey flavored cereal.") Rice, sugar, corn syrup, honey, salt, vinegar, vegetable oil, sodium acetate, thiamine (vitamin Bi), niacin and iron. Net weight marking, relatively legible, but small. Ingredients fairly well presented, but small, and not well placed, considering great amount of package space available and used for pictures and sales message. Calories per oz., not given (should be). Slack fill, 16%.

Nabisco shredded wheat. 5 oz., 13c. 100% whole wheat [1] with butylated hydroxyanisole and citric acid in propylene glycol added as preservatives. Net weight marking, relatively legible. Ingredients well presented, but small, considering great amount of package space available and used for pictures and sales messages. Calories per oz., not given (should be). Estimated cost, cents per 100 calories, 2.5. Slack fill, 15%.

Nabisco spoon size shredded wheat. 7^ oz., 19c. ("With improved wheat protein.") A 100% whole wheat [t] with butylated hydroxy toluene preservative. Net weight marking relatively legible, but small. Ingredients well presented, but small and not well placed, considering the great amount of package space for pictures and sales messages. Calories per oz., not given. Slack fill, 31%.

Nabisco Wheat Honeys. 8^2 oz., 29c. ("The original honey flavored cereal.") Wheat, sugar, corn syrup, honey, salt, vinegar, vegetable oil, sodium acetate, thiamine (vitamin Bi), niacin and iron. Net weight marking, small. Ingredients fairly well presented, but small and not well placed, considering great amount of package space available and used for pictures and sales message. Calories per oz., not given (should be). A letter from the company indicates about 125. Estimated cost, cents per 100 calories, 2.7. Slack fill, 23%.

('Concluded on page 32)
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What goes into modern CHEWING GUMS?

Would you like to chew some rubber-natural or synthetic, maybe both? How about some polyterpene resins, made from gum turpentine? Sound good to you? If it does, well then, you may like a stick of gum!

You're not likely to find resins or rubber among the names of ingredients printed on a gum wrapper. Nor will you find mention of chicle or any of some 15 other exotically named natural gums (such as gutta hang kang and leche de vaca) that are permitted by Federal regulation as gum ingredients.

From the label, you will not learn whether the chewy substances in a particular stick of gum are all natural gums or include such synthetic materials as butyl or butadiene-styrene rubber, paraffin, polyethylene, polyisobutylene, or polyvinyl acetate. And the label will not tell you the names of the "softeners" used, nor is it likely to give information about other chemicals present, which may include preservatives such as butylated hydroxytoluene.

As a matter of fact, the typical label on chewing gum gives almost none of the information needed by consumers on what the stuff is made of.

How come? Aren't consumers entitled to be told what their children are buying and putting into their mouths? Doesn't the law require that the ingredients of a stick of gum be listed on its label?

Certainly the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act does require just that. According to the law. food ingredients must be shown on labels, and there is even a special provision that chewing gum is legally a "food."

Exceptions to the general rule are made for those foods which are covered by "definitions and standards of identity." Chewing gum,

Under our system, consumers have a right to expect that packages will carry reliable and readily usable information about their contents.

-John F. Kennedy, Message to Congress, March 15,1962

One major gum manufacturer can turn out close to 90 million sticks of gum a day, more than 2 sticks every day for each young child in the population of the U. S. For this, among other reasons, the ingredients of gum are important to the user, and it is a matter of concern, to all whose children chew gum, that labels do not list the ingredients in detail. The importance of the ingredients lies in the fact that about two thirds of a stick of gum is ultimately swallowed and goes into the chewer's digestive tract. The story of gum labels is an instructive example of the way the government encourages evasion of the requirements of the Federal food and drug law, which is supposed to see that consumers are told in full detail the ingredients of packaged foods.

however, is not in this privileged category; there is no standard for the product.

There is also a provision of the Federal law that enforcement officials may make regulations exempting a product from the labeling requirement when it is "impracticable" to list the ingredients on the label. The Food and Drug Administration has ruled, under this authority, that ingredients need not be listed on foods when there is "insufficient label space."

The gum makers operate under special rulings

Back in 1939, when the newly adopted law calling for statements of ingredients on the labels of food packages was about to go into effect, chewing gum makers asked to be exempted. The manufacturers said that it would be necessary to list some 25 or 30 in-
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ingredients on the label of each stick of gum and contended that this would be impracticable. This request for exemption was turned down, but Federal officials ruled that the chewy ingredients (gums, guttas, waxes, to the number of about 12 in any given formulation) could be collectively termed "gum base" on the label. Other components would have to be separately named.

The gum makers were not satisfied, and came back with the request that they be allowed to call another group of materials (about 3 to 12 of them in any one gum) just "modifying agents." Food and Drug officials agreed to this except that they decided that the principal effect of the ingredients concerned was as plasticizers and that they should be called by a descriptive name such as "softeners." Furthermore, in this second ruling, F.D.A. officials suggested an acceptable labeling which included only two sweetening ingredients, sugar and com syrup, even though earlier they had said most chewing gums included additional carbohydrates, such as dextrose, dextrin, starch, and maltose. Since this 1939 ruling, just about every gum label lists "sugar and com syrup" as the only carbohydrates present.

Sugar is the principal ingredient

Sugar (with other carbohydrates) is the main component of chewing gum. In a typical formula, about 75 percent is carbohydrate;

half of that, or more, is likely to be plain sugar. Nonetheless, the Food and Drug Administration, which says that ingredients of foods "should" be listed in the order of their predominance, in effect, advised gum makers to put "gum base" first and "sugar" second on their labels, a piece of advice which has been pretty generally followed from 1939 to the present time.

The high proportion of sugar is reason enough to avoid chewing gum, especially for young people, whose teeth are especially susceptible to decay, and often involve parents in great expense for dental care, on that account. (See Consumer Bulletin, February and March 1961, and the '62-'63 Annual at pages 18 and 26 for many other reasons to avoid sugar.)

In addition to the sugar, however, other ingredients may be objectionable to some users. Those who are allergic to certain vegetable gums (and some of these gums are known to be allergens) or particular chemical softeners or preservatives could avoid consuming these substances if only the foods which contain them (chewing gum and all others) were equipped to show plainly on their labels the individual names of every ingredient.

In 1939, when the Food and Drug Administration gave chewing gum makers permission to leave the names of most ingredients off their labels, it cited no legal justification for this action. The F.D.A. merely com-

BEECH-NUT GUM

PEPPERMINT

HECK NUT Mft CWUOMHE. U.IX

BEECH-NUT GUM PEPPERMINT

MAOC Of CUM BASE. SUCH. CORD SYRUP. FUVM MID SQFHNUS.

SAVE THIS WRAPPER 16 DISPOSE Of IBUR GUM.

XYZ CHEWING GUM
XYZ Gum Co.,
123 Gummy Road, Chicleville, La.
Made of sugar, corn syrup, dextrin, starch, chicle, gutta hang kang. massaranduba balata, nispero, jelutong, leche de vaca, natural rubber, butadiene-atyrene rubber, butyl rubber, paraffin, polyethylene, polyisobutylene, polyvinyl acetate, lanolin, stearic acid, terpene re?ins, artificial flavor and color; and butylated hydroxyanisole, butylated hy-droxytoluene, and propyl gallate as preservatives.

The imaginary labeling shown above on the right for XYZ Chewing Gum names 25 ingredients, which is about the number in a typical chewing gum, according to the Food and Drug Administration. That this list can be printed on a standard-size gum label (even if one tnust look closely to read it, as one must also with the Beech-Nut wrapper on the left) shows clearly that lack of space is not a sound reason for failing to include a complete and accurate list of ingredients on every gum wrapper.

The ingredients listed on the wrapper of XYZ Chewing Gum do not include by any means all of the components allowed by Federal regulation in the so-called food additive, "chewing gum base." Also permitted, but not listed above, are° chiquibul, crown gum, mas-saranduba chocolate, rosidinha, Venezuelan chicle, leche caspi, pendare, perillo, niger gutta, tonu, chilte, glycerin ester of partially hydrogenated wood rosin, glycerin ester of polymerized rosin, sodium stearate, potassium stearate, sodium sulfate, and sodium sulfide.
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implemented about some of the components present in small proportions that its officials were "not impressed with the importance to the consumer of a revelation of such ingredients." Apparently then, as it often seems now, the F.D.A. was not greatly concerned with its simple duty to enforce the law, which calls for naming all ingredients and makes no exception for any which some bureaucrat might consider unimportant to consumers.

There's not enough room on a gum wrapper, says F.D.A.

According to a recent interpretation of the old rulings by a high official of the F.D.A., it is the regulation about insufficient space that justifies the omission from chewing-gum labels of a full list of ingredients. Curious about this question of label space, Consumers' Research asked its printer to try an experiment. We asked him to print in a space equivalent to one side of the wrapper of a stick of gum a list of 25 ingredients that may be present in chewing gum. (The F.D.A. has said that 25 is about the number of components of an "average" chewing gum.) Our "full-disclosure" labeling is shown on page 31, along with a reproduction of a typical commercial gum wrapper; the wrappers are opened out flat to show both sides. There can be no question that, if the maker is willing to show his brand name once only, in large type, he will easily find room for listing 25 ingredients, or even more.

Now that our helpful printer has shown that there is plenty of room on a gum wrapper to list the ingredients, we wonder how long it will be before the Food and Drug Administration will be in touch with its printers, and will then require gum manufacturers to obey the plain mandate of the law and to print on the wrappers of their product a full list of the ingredients within.

Or, now that the myth of too-little-room is exploded, we wonder whether the manufacturers and the F.D.A. will come up with some other way (promulgation of a food standard, perhaps?) to avoid or delay telling consumers the simple truth about what is in the gum they and their children masticate to the extent of many billions of sticks annually.

Consumers. . .have the right to know what is in the package they buy.

-John F. Kennedy, Message to Congress, March 15,1962

A further look at popular breakfast cereals

(The beginning of this article is on page 25)

Quaker Muffets shredded wheat. 12 biscuits, 9 oz., 23c. Whole wheat [1] nothing added but water for processing (no chemicals, additives, or preservatives). New weight marking, good. Calories per oz., 123. Cost, cents per 100 calories, 2.1.

-^Sunshine Shredded Wheat. 12 oz., 23c. Whole [1,2] wheat (with germ and bran), (no added preservative.) Net weight marking, fairly prominent and legible. Calories per oz., not given (should be), but data sent in response to a written request to the manufacturer indicate 104 calories per oz. Cost, cents per 100 calories, 1.8. Slack fill, 16%.

*Wheatena. 1 lb. 6 oz., 37c. ("All the protein. . . all the wheat germ of the natural wheat.") Made of wheat [1]; contains the bran, farina, and the germ, but not all of the outside layer of the grain.

No specific statement of the parts of the grain that are present. Net weight marking satisfactory,

well stated. Calories per oz., according to in-

formation supplied by manufacturer in answer to a letter, 100. (Not given on package, as it should be.) Cost, cents per 100 calories, 1.7.

Slack fill, 3%.

* * *

Other breakfast cereals in the "starred" category reported in previous Bulletins on this subject are:

Cream of Wheat Corp's Quick Cream of Wheat enriched Farina.

National Oats Co. 3 Minute Brand Quick Oats.

Post Grape Nuts (the new kind, without preservatives).

Quaker Mothers' Oats [1].
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Should you 'dry clean' your car- or wash it with water?

( The beginning of this article is on page 43)

particular harm to the car's lacquer or enamel finish. Nevertheless the harm is done, is bound to be, indeed. If one were trying to scratch and wear away a finely-finished lacquered surface, rubbing it with a dry cloth carrying a fine sandy grit or mud would be the method one would be likely to use. The photograph accompanying this article shows just how quickly definite scratching occurs when road dirt on the highly-finished panel of a car is rubbed onto it by a cotton flannel wiping cloth lightly impregnated with oil.

To minimize scratching and dulling of the paint, which are bound to occur in time even with the most careful treatment of the surface, the car should be sprayed or washed gently with running cold water before any rubbing is done. The flow of water will flush off much of the dirt, dust, and grit. The remainder can then be loosened and removed with gentle use of a soaking wet sponge, chamois, or cloth and cold water (a hose stream if available).

Recommended procedure for keeping the exterior of the car looking clean and sleek, as well as protecting the paint finish and other parts, includes following several steps. The car should be washed after every long trip and after exposure to heavy dust, mud, sand, or tar. Cars exposed to city grime or seashore air should be washed regularly, and more frequently than one driven in the country.

Washing is best done using a garden hose and a gentle spray. Whether or not a detergent should be used will depend on the condition of the car's finish. If the car has a coating of wax or other protective film and you wish the existing coat to last as long as possible, avoid the use of a detergent-wash the finish with plain cold water. However, if the finish is dirty and the dirt defies washing with a flow of plain water, you may safely use in the water a small amount of a mild detergent, such as is widely sold for this purpose in auto supply stores. The usual house-

hold liquid detergents sold for washing dishes and undergarments by hand will do if used sparingly. Water containing detergent should be followed immediately with thorough rinsing with running water from a hose, if a hose stream is available, to be sure to remove all the detergent. After the washing is done, the car can be wiped dry with a sponge or turkish towel, or preferably with a squeezed-out chamois.

When the paint becomes dull, use a mild polish to restore the gloss and follow with a wax or other protective coating. To eliminate one complete rubbing operation, there are available nowadays combination polish and wax products that will provide both the polishing and the waxing in one operation. If a combination polish-wax is used, it will be necessary to go over the car oftener than if a separate polish and wax job is done, but the combination method will require only about half as much time and effort.

If the paint is not neglected to the extent that it becomes dull, one may eliminate the polishing operation and simply apply a protective coating of automobile wax.

Chromium and other metal trim should be given the same treatment as the painted finish.

Whitewall tires

For whitewall tires, there are many different products that one can use. One inexpensive and effective liquid cleaner in a plastic squeeze bottle is available from Sears mail-order catalogs and stores. Avoid the use of harsh abrasives, such as scouring powders, steel wool, etc., on whitewalls. These tend to scratch and cut the surface of the tire, may even hasten the physical deterioration of the rubber.

"Dry"-cleaning products

C. Not Recommended Conniver, Kozak, Miracle Cloth, Nenette, Speed-kleen, Roll-A-Shine.
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'RUNLESS' NYLONS

(The beginning of this article is on page 2)

A nylon stocking with its parts identified

Plain knit, of which most hosiery is made, is a simple jersey stitch, similar to a hand-knitting stitch (knit one row, purl one row). A break in a yarn causes a run.

Mesh knit is a more complicated stitch with loops interlocked. It is not as stretchable as plain knit. A snag will usually leave a hole. In micro-mesh knit hose, any run which develops will run up the leg, from the foot toward the welt.

be so irrational as it seems. Controlled tests and every woman's experience point to the conclusion that hosiery fails, as a general rule, from accidents, snags or pulls, not from "wear." Thus, a woman reasons, she might as well have her stockings look as attractive as possible for their lifetime. (The sheer ones cost the same, or even less, than the heavier ones; both will fail when snagged.)

According to The Wall Street Journal, there are plans to market hosiery so inexpensive that women can afford to discard them after a wearing or two instead of washing them. These cheaper stockings are produced by eliminating knitting of the heel pocket. The stockings come off the machines as straight nylon tubes, and are molded to shape on aluminum frames. Some kinds of

hosiery are reported to be selling in Germany today at 25 cents a pair.

Tests of "run-resistant" nylons

When Consumers' Research began its current study, only Chadbourn Gotham Foreva "runless" hose, at $1.95 a pair, were available in stores in New York City. Since then, Burlington Hosiery's Cameo End/Run sheers at $1.65 and Hanes Sheerloc runless at $1.75 have been marketed.

Consumers' Research purchased several pairs of Foreva nylons. They were given certain limited laboratory tests, and put into service in a "walking laboratory use test" in which women wore the stockings to see how they would perform in service, recorded the number of hours they were worn, and the condition that caused them to be retired. Conventional seamless and full-fashioned hose sold by Penney's retail stores and by Sears mail-order house were also tested for comparison with the "runless" hose.

In the laboratory tests, the "boot" (leg portion) of one stocking of each pair was snagged by pulling it over fine sandpaper, and a seam ripper was used to produce snags in the welt and after (shadow) welt areas. The hose were then stretched and flexed.

Holes, but not runs, developed in the leg portions of the new run-resistant hose in the laboratory tests; ladders and runs developed iii the welt and after-welt portions, but the welt runs did not extend into the leg of the stocking. In such tests, runs did develop in conventional hose, though some were surprisingly run-resistant (see listings). Some stockings, too, have run-stops in the welt and toe areas which prevent runs in those areas from running into the leg.

The findings in the walking tests, in which at least two pairs of each brand were worn, were in accord with the laboratory findings. Three pairs of Foreva "runless" hose were retired because of holes after 24, 39, and 111 hours of wear, respectively. Each failure was caused by an accident (24 hours, rough shoes; 39 hours, snag from a rough chair leg; 111

Welt-the hem or heaviest portion

After welt (or shadow welt)-the less sheer portion above the leg

Leg, sometimes called boot


Page 35:

hours, snag from rung of a wooden stool).

In each case, the snag in the leg of the run-resistant stocking produced a hole which enlarged as the stocking was worn.

Tests of conventional nylons

The life of the three pairs of run-resistant hose ($2 a pair) was not markedly different from the life of the seamless and conventional-knit seamless and full-fashioned hosiery used as controls ($1 a pair, average). The conventional stockings wore from 10 hours to 350 hours (except when the stockings had defects when received). Two of the pairs tested were Sears Dividend Buy full-fashioned plain-knit hose listed in their regular Fall and Winter catalog at 36 cents a pair, plus postage. One of these failed after only 5 minutes wear because of a run from a snag in the after welt. The other pair lasted for 58 hours.

The most common cause of failure with the conventional hose, as with the run-resistant ones, was snagging. Rough hands and nails (on both toes and fingers) were the most common offenders, along with the rough inner surfaces of shoes. Pulls in some of the conventionally-knit hose, as well as the interlock-knit ones, did not immediately develop into runs or holes that required the hosiery to be discarded for appearance sake.

One thing is pretty certain. Hosiery manufacturers will not be putting themselves out of business by making run-resistant nylons. It seems to us doubtful whether, from the standpoint of appearance, they will even be offering sheer hose substantial competition.

Run-resistant seamless mesh nylons Foreva (Chadbourn Gotham, Inc.) $1.95 a pair. Seamless interlock knit, 15 denier.

In laboratory teste: boot (leg) developed holes, but not long "ladder" runs. Runs induced in welt, heel, and toe did not extend into leg.

In wear test: one pair worn 24 hr. (snag and hole from rough shoe lining, also unexplained hole at mid-calf); second pair, 39 hr. (snag and hole from chair); 111 hr. (snag and hole from stool).

Seamless nylons

Gaymode 408 (J. C. Penney Co., Inc.) 69c. Seamless, conventional knit, 15 denier, 400 needle.

In laboratory tests: leg developed holes, but runs followed only after considerable stretching and flexing. Runs in heel and toe reinforcements and welts extended into leg.

In wear test: worn 40 hr. (run at bottom of foot at beginning of toe reinforcement, extended into leg in both pairs).

Gaymode 415D (J. C. Penney Co., Inc.) 98c. Seamless, conventional knit.

In laboratory tests: leg developed holes and runs. Runs in heel and toe reinforcements and welts extended into leg.

In wear test: worn 26 hr. (snags from rough hands); second pair had been worn 453 hr. without failure at end of wear test.

Gaymode X8D (J. C. Penney Co., Inc.) 98c. Seamless stretch hose, twin thread.

In laboratory teste: leg developed holes and runs. Runs in heel and toe reinforcements and welts extended into leg.

In wear test: worn 10 hr. (snag at heel reinforcement, run) and 134 hr. (snag from toenail, run).

Royal Purple (Sears 90221F, also 90111F, 90441F) 94c, plus postage. Seamless micromesh, 15 denier.

In laboratory tests: legs snagged, and holes developed, one sizable, and run developed after flexing and stretching. Runs induced in heel and toe reinforcements and welts did not extend into leg.

In wear test: two pair had been worn for 104 and 91 hr., respectively, without failure at end of wear test.

Full-Fashioned seamed nylons

Gaymode 349 (J. C. Penney Co., Inc.) 98c. Full-fashioned, conventional knit, 30 denier, 51 gauge (service weight) with "two-way stretch afterwelt," 5% cotton added to sole.

In laboratory tests: legs snagged, but no runs developed except after considerable flexing and stretching. Runs in heel and toe reinforcements and welts extended into leg.

In wear test: worn 224 hr. (snag in leg from rough desk, run); second pair, 65 hr. (hole at instep, slight run); third pair, 105 hr. (snag from straw purse, run); one pair had been worn for 59 hr. without failure at end of wear test.

Gaymode 451 (J. C. Penney Co., Inc.) 98c. Full-fashioned, conventional knit, 30 denier, 51 gauge (service weight), with "two-way stretch afterwelt," 5% cotton added to sole.

In laboratory tests: legs snagged, but no runs developed after considerable flexing and stretching. Runs in heel and toe reinforcements and after welts extended into leg, but not the run induced in the welt.

In wear test: worn 192 hr. (run in leg at unexplained snag); second pair had been worn 238 hr. without failure at end of wear test.

(Concluded on page 37)
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OFF THE EDITOR'S CHEST

Can human beings withstand the barrage of economic poisons?

How to kill insects without injuring people is becoming one of the most important health and economic problems of our times. As our long-time subscribers know, we have been concerned about the effects on health and life of the increasing number of chemicals, new and comparatively untried, that are continuously being incorporated into our food supply in various forms. We at Consumers' Research were among the first to warn of the dangers from agricultural sprays of lead arsenate that resulted in serious illness, even death, to those who used them carelessly, and the hazards to health of the consumers from lead and arsenic and other insecticide residues on fruit and vegetables.

Eventually, public opinion forced the replacement of this dangerous spray to a considerable extent. The poison, however, left in the soil of many tobacco-growing areas still remains to contaminate the plants and to this day tobacco grown on such soils continues to absorb appreciable amounts of arsenic and lead.

Arsenate of lead has been supplanted in part by newer and more powerful chemicals. For household, home garden, and agricultural use, DDT, lindane, dieldrin, chlordane, and scores of other potent insecticides have been given official approval by Federal authorities. These, when properly used (the phrase should be strongly emphasized), may not have such harmful effects on human beings as the cumulative lead arsenate spray, but they are known to involve hazards to health when used repeatedly and excessively for extermination of household and garden pests. Agricultural experts have discovered that even the flavor of certain canned vegetables such as carrots, potatoes, and onions has been adversely affected by the presence of lindane in the soil. Chlordane also has been held responsible for off-flavors in certain canned vegetables. Widespread spraying and dusting from the air to eliminate certain insects, and roadside spraying to keep down weeds, shrubs, and tall grasses have also added to the contamination of our environment with dangerous chemicals.

Fish, game, and wildlife have been adversely affected, in every part of the United States. Medical experts are even beginning to wonder if cancer and certain difficult-to-diagnose diseases are not caused by the prevalence of the new and powerful chemicals on which too little research has been done with respect to their long-time effects. It should be noted that still more powerful insecticides are being developed and utilized. The most deadly of these are organic phosphates such as para-thion, methyl parathion, malathion, and others.

An excellent picture of the insecticide problem and what attempts at massive chemical control have failed to accomplish, as well as the effect on human beings, livestock, wildlife, and vegetation has been presented by Rachel Carson, in an absorbing series of articles in The New Yorker magazine, beginning June 16, 1962, and in a book entitled "Silent Spring." Miss Carson is a fully qualified marine biologist, author of several best-selling books on scientific subjects. She describes the various chemical sprays for insects, and weed killers, and notes that they have been only partially successful as controls, and in some cases have even worsened the conditions they are designed to cure. The dangerous effect on human health and life are discussed in detail with specific examples of illnesses and death caused by contact with the powerful chemicals involved. Concrete examples are cited of particular cases of insecticides' poisoning of the soil so that subsequent crops grown on them pick up the harmful ingredients for many years. Carrots, for instance, absorb more insecticide than any other crop studied and actually accumulate higher concentrations of lindane than are present in the soil.

Just how much insecticide gets into the milk after cows have grazed on pasture lands and fields that may be sprayed either in connection with aerial spraying operations or directly to eradicate certain weeds is not at all clear. Health authorities do not check for the presence of residues of heptachlor and dieldrin, for example, in milk, although calves
Page 37:

have died that have been given milk from cows which have grazed on pastures sprayed with these chemicals. The cotton bollworm in one experiment abroad was extensively sprayed with DDT, but the pest seemed to flourish. On the other hand, unsprayed cotton produced a better yield, in spite of damage by insects.

Miss Carson points out that some insecticides are sold in attractive packages for household use. Many are left within easy reach of a child's hand. There are products designed to kill insects while we polish the floor, lotions and creams to be applied to the skin to repel mosquitoes, sprays for mothproofing clothing, and any number of poisons to be applied to the lawn and garden. The government is now even suggesting the addition of dieldrin to concrete, so that insects will be killed from walking on its surface. Every meal carries its quota of residues that are the inevitable result of spraying and dusting agricultural crops of every kind imaginable with chemical poisons.

Miss Carson's book reads like a detective story that keeps the reader glued to the page until the last unhappy or deadly result from some spraying incident is set forth. Miss Carson points out that the Federal government affords only very limited protection to consumers against the dangers to health from insecticides. It has no immediate or close control over the individual farmer who may not apply a spray sparingly, according to directions, or only at the times suggested. The Food and Drug Administration has too few inspectors to police the field thoroughly, and furthermore can only take action against

food that is shipped in interstate commerce.

It is Miss Carson's recommendation that tolerances for residues of the chlorinated hydrocarbons (such as DDT) and the organic-phosphate group, and other highly toxic chemicals be set at zero. She further advocates the exploration of insect control by non-chemical methods that will leave no poisonous residues on food. She points out that the alternative is the prospect of damage to health or strength that will not be detected for years, with the possibility of genetic effects that may not be known for generations.

We all have recently read and heard in detail the shocking effects of the tranquilizer thalidomide taken by women at an early stage of pregnancy. The horrifying example of what can happen when a new drug is used before it has been widely and extensively tested for possible side effects may have alerted the public to the need for cutting down positively and firmly on the use of the American consumer as a guinea pig for new chemicals, not only in the field of medical and veterinary drugs, but in a host of other items such as the insecticides and pesticides almost universally applied in agriculture and in the food industries.

Miss Carson's book comes at a critical time and it will provide substantial reinforcement for the views of many who have long been apprehensive of the growing hazards to health from indiscriminate use of inadequately tested chemicals. As she points out, "The public must decide whether it wishes to continue on the present road, and it can do so only when it is in full possession of the facts."

'Runless' nylons

(Continued from page 35)

Sears Dividend Buy (Sears Cat. No. 75-64442F, 64443F) 36c, plus postage. Full-fashioned, conventional knit, 15 denier, 51 gauge (sheer).

In laboratory tests: legs snagged, but no runs developed after considerable flexing and stretching. Runs in heel and toe reinforcements and after welt extended into leg, but not the run induced in the welt.

In wear test: worn 58 hr. (run from an unexplained snag); second pair failed by run from a snag in after welt the first time it was put on.

Royal Purple (Sears Cat. No. 75-99001F, also 99111F, 99221F) 94c, plus postage. Full-fashioned, conventional knit, 15 denier, 60 gauge ("ultra sheer"), with "run-proof afterwelt and toe ring."

In laboratory tests: leg snagged; one run developed after flexing and stretching. Runs induced in heel reinforcements and welts extended into leg, but not in welts and toe reinforcements.

In wear test: two pair had worn for 105 and 56 hr., respectively, without failure at end of wear test.
Page 38:

Please Note: Stereo records are indicated by the symbol. Ratings (AA, A, B, etc.) apply first to the quality of interpretation, second to the fidelity of the recording. Where performances are known to be available on both stereo and regular LP records, the number of the record not heard is given in brackets.

Brahms: Violin and Piano Sonatas Nos. 1 and 3

Seemann (piano), Schneiderhan (violin). Deutsche Gram-mophon LPM 18696 [138696]. $5.98. Principally rich, introspective music, played in chamber music style by accomplished musicians. Cleanly recorded. AA AA

Cilea: Adriana Lecouvreur. Tebaldi, Simionato, del Monaco, etc., under Capuana. 6 sides, London OSA 1331 [A4359]. $17.94. A verismo opera not heard at the Met for 45 years. It will be revived this season for Tebaldi, who sings the lead here and carries the role beautifully. There is some shouting by del Monaco. Simionato matches Tebaldi in excellence. The other members of the cast are better than adequate. First-rate conducting and reproduction. A AA

Handel: Three Italian Cantatas. Helen Watts (contralto). L'Oiseau-Lyre SOL 60046 [50215]. $5.98. "Splenda l'alba in oriente," "Carco sempre di gloria," and "Tu fedel? Tu constante?" Off the beaten path and charming. Helen Watts offers musicianship and a rich contralto voice that is remarkably expressive and flexible. The English Chamber Orchestra under Leppard backs her up splendidly. Commendable engineering. AA AA

Mahler: Symphony No. 9 (4 sides). Columbia Symphony under Bruno Walter and Two Portraits of Bruno Walter 1876-1962 (2 sides). Columbia M2S 676 [M2L 276], $11.98. A dedicated, historic performance under the baton of Bruno Walter, who conducted the first performance of this lengthy work. There are other recorded performances, but there is no competition. Fortunately, the engineers have done their task well. The supplementary disk of "Portraits," rehearsals and interview, also reminds us how much the world has lost in the death of the maestro. AA AA

Strauss, J.: Gypsy Baron. Gueden, Rothenberger, Terkal, Kunz, Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra, etc., under Hollreiser. 4 sides, Angel BL 3612 [BL 3612], $11.96. Sparkling tunes rather than an absorbing plot keep this operetta in the repertory. The singers know the idiom and turn in an exhilarating performance. While the set is the only one in stereo, according to Schwann's catalog, it has a strong rival in mono, Angel 3566, with Gedda, Schwarzkopf, Kunz, Ackermann. The new Angel is very well recorded, with wide channel separation and pleasing clarity. AA AA

Strauss, R.: Enoch Arden. Glenn Gould (piano) and Claude Rains (reader). Columbia MS 6341 [ML 5741], $5.98. Young Richard Strauss wrote the music to accompany the reading of Lord Tennyson's sad, sentimental poem about a shipwrecked sailor who eventually returned home and found that his wife had married again, because she believed him to be dead The music introduces leitmotif associations in the Wagner manner, yet it never detracts from the reading. An unusual work, rarely heard, expertly performed and recorded. AA AA

Tchaikovsky: Symphony No. 7. Philadelphia Orchestra under Ormandy. Columbia MS 6349 [ML 5749], $5.98. A "new" symphony by a major romanticist. The work, principally reconstructed by Bogatyryev from sketches left by Tchaikovsky, is closely related to the Piano Concerto No. 3. It's entertaining, tuneful. Stunning performance and recording. AA AA

Wagner: Prelude and Love Death from Tristan und Isolde & Strauss: Death and Transfiguration. Los Angeles Philharmonic under Leinsdorf. Capitol SP 8580 [P 8580], $5.98. Advertised as "the first modern coupling of these two magnificent meditations on love and death." No question both works are popular with orchestral concert audiences. This is some of the repertory on which

Leinsdorf, new musical director of the Boston Symphony, has built his reputation. He doesn't disappoint here. Fairly good sound. AA A

Folklore from Hungary. Soloists, Orchestra and Chorus, Budapest "Duna" Ensemble under Vavrinecz. Westminster WST 17008 [19008]. $5.98. A fascinating

collection of gay and sad Hungarian folksongs arranged for vocal soloists, chorus and orchestra. Obviously the performers know the idiom, for they leave nothing to be desired. Very well recorded. AA AA

(§)French Overtures. Detroit Symphony under Paray. Mercury SR 90247 [SO 247]. $5.98. Delightful. Paray's meat. Included are the overtures to "Mignon," "La Dame Blanche," "Zampa," "Raymond," "If I Were King," "Crown Diamonds." Lively, light, tuneful music of the highest order. Engineering isexcellent. AA AA Golden Music Box Favorites. Bornand AB 5. $3.98.

(Bornand Music Box Co., 139 Fourth Ave., Pelham, N.Y.) The phonograph, which ended the supremacy of the music box in the front parlor, now introduces this rare instrument to a new generation. Here are 26 familiar songs which sound so realistic that few listeners are likely to realize they are hearing a recording rather than a rich-sounding music box. The selections include "Home Sweet Home," "Old Oaken Bucket," "Glow Worm," "Ben Bolt," "Annie Laurie." Nostalgic, lovely. AA AA

(s)Hataril Henry Mancini and His Orchestra. RCA Victor LSP 2559 [LPM 2559], $4.98. Music from the screen play very well scored by Mancini. The setting is wildest Africa. The music's pleasing and appropriate with the theme, "Baby Elephant Walk," and "Just for Tonight," outstanding. Top notch performance and engineering. AA AA

(s)Julie and Carol at Carnegie Hall. Julie Andrews and Carol Burnett (vocalists). Columbia OS 2240 [OL 5840]. $5.98. The sound from a June television show. Musical portions were re-recorded in the Columbia Records studio. Two of the foremost female entertainers of the day whoop it up and sing it up in duets and solos. "No Mozart Tonight," "Oh Dear What Can the Matter Be," "History of Musical Comedy," etc. While none of the other material measures up to the inspired "You're So London," there's much to laugh at, much to admire. Good party record. Fairly well recorded with wide stereo separation. AA AA

Spain. Stanley Black and His Orchestra. London SP 44016 [P 54016], $5.98. A spectacular sound special- "phase 4 stereo + i.m. 20 c.r."-according to London! One of nine new releases of this caliber and one of the best, musically. Included are grandiose arrangements, for the most part, of "Granada," "Valencia," "Carmen Fantasy," and others, played by a skilled orchestra of 80. AA AA Spanish Song of the Renaissance. De los Angeles (soprano). Angel S 35888 [35888]. $5.98. A unique disk of songs from the period 1440-1600, expressively sung by the foremost Spanish singer of our day. Appropriately, the accompaniment consists of ancient instruments such as tenor fiddle, bass viol, lute, alto recorder, bass recorder, etc. Played by members of the ars musicae. Excellent engineering. AA AA

You Are My Heart's Delight. Sandor Konya (tenor). Deutsche Grammophon LPEM 19267 [SLPEM 136267], $5.98. Operetta pieces for tenor, sung in German. Konya's voice rings like a trumpet. There's musicianship here, too. Included are pieces by Lehar, Kalman, Friml, and others. Where is there a tenor equal to this on our musical comedy stage? The voice is well recorded but the orchestra sounds a bit thin. AA A
Page 39:

Ratings of Current Motion Pictures THIS SECTION aims to give critical consumers a digest of opinion from a wide range of motion picture reviews, including the motion picture trade press, leading newspapers and magazines-some 17 different periodicals in all. The motion picture ratings which follow thus do not represent the judgment of a single person, but are based on an analysis of critics' reviews. Descriptive abbreviations are as follows:
Adventures of the Road Runner

Advise and Consent
Air Patrol
Airborne
All Fall Down
Almost Angels mi
And the Wild, Wild Women
(Italian) Anticipation of the Night...
Assignment Outer Space
Bachelor of Hearts (British). Back Streets of Paris (Frencl
Barabbas (Italian)
Battle Aboard the Defiant
(British)
Beauty and the Beast
Bell' Antonio (Italian)
Belle Somers
Best of Enemies, The
(Italian) a
Big Red Big Wave, The (Japanese)... Billy Budd (British) Birdman of Alcatraz
Boccaccio '70 Bon Voyage
Boys' Night Out
Brain that Wouldn't Die, Th
Broken Land, The
Burn, Witch, Burn (British)
Cabinet of Caligari, The....
Cape Fear
Capture that Capsule n
Case of Patty Smith, The ..
Cash on Demand (British). .
Centurion, The 1
Chapman Report, The
Choppers, The
Coming Out Party, A
(British)
Concrete Jungle, The (Britisl
Confessions of an Opium Ea
Connection. The
Count of Monte Cristo (see S
Counterfeit Traitor, The...
Damn the Defiant (British). Day of the Triffids, The (Bri
Devi (India)................
Devil Made a Woman, The. Devil's Wanton, The (Swedi Doctor in Love (British). . . Don't Knock the Twist. . .. During One Night (British)
Empty Star, The (Mexican)
End of Desire (French)......
Erotica.....................
Escape from Zahrain.........
Experiment in Terror........
Five Finger Exercise........
Five Weeks in a Balloon. . .
Flower Thief, The ..........
Follow that Dream...........
Forever My Love (Austrian) Frightened City, The (British)...................
Geronimo....................
Gigot.......................
Girl Named Tamiko, A........
Girl With the Golden Eyes,
The (French)................
Guns of Darkness (British). Gypsy.......................
Hand of Death...............
Hands of a Stranger.........
Harold Lloyd's World of
Comedy......................
Hatari!.....................
Head, The (German)..........
Head of a Tyrant (Italian).
Hell is for Heroes..........
Hemingway's Adventures ol
Young Man...................
Hero's Island...............
Horizontal Lieutenant,
The...................
Horror Chamber of Dr. Fau
The (French)................
How the West Was Won________
Huns, The (Italian).........
Hunza.......................d
Page 40:

I Like Money (British). ..
Immoral West, The.........
Important Man, The (Me:
Incident in an Alley......
Information Received
(British).................
Inspector, The (British)..
Interns, The..............
Invasion of the Star
Creatures.................
It Happened in Athens. . It Takes a Thief (British)
Jack the Giant Killer (Brit
Jacktown..................
Jessica (Franco-Italian). .
Jet Storm (British).......
Joan of the Angels (Polisi Journey to the Seventh P
(Danish)..................
Jules and Jim (French).. Jungle Fighters (British).
Karate....................
Kid Galahad...............
Kind of Loving, A (Britisl
Land We Love, The.........
Last of the Vikings (Italis Last Year at Marienbad (
Lawrence of Arabia........
Lila (German-Swedish). .
Lion, The (British).......
Lisa (see Inspector, The)
Lolita....................
Lonely Are the Brave Long Day's Journey Into
Longest Day, The..........
Love is a Day's Work (Ita
Magnificent Tramp, The Make Mine a Double (Brit Man Who Shot Liberty V
The.......................
Manster, The (Japanese) Matter of Who, A (Britisl Mermaids of Tiburon, T1
(British).................
Merrill's Marauders.......
Mighty Ursus, The (Itali:
Miracle Worker, The_______
Money, Money, Money (]
Mothra (Japanese).........
Mr. Hobbs Takes a Vacat
Music Man, The............
Mutiny on the Bounty..
Night Creatures (British Night They Killed Raspu Ninth Bullet, The (Brazi
No Man is an Island.......
Notorious Landlady, Th<
Only Two Can Play (Brit
Panic in Year Zero........
Payroll (British).........
Peeping Tom...............
Phaedra (Greek)...........
Phantom of the Opera,r
(British)...............
Phantom Planet, The. . Pigeon that Took Rome, Pirates of Blood River, 1
(British)...............
Poe's Tales of Terror (sei
Pressure Point............
Prisoner in the Iron Maf
Reluctant Dragon, The..........
Reprieve.......................
Ride the High Country..........
Rider on a Dead Horse..........
Ring a Ding Rhythm...........mui
Ring of Terror.................
Road to Hong Kong, The.. .sc-, Rome Adventure ................
Safe at Home...................
Samar..........................a
Satan in High Heels............
Seawards the Great Ship
(British)......................
Shadows Grow Longer, The
(Swiss)........................
She Didn't Say No (British)... Shoot the Piano Player (Frenc
Siege of Syracuse (Italian)____
Six Black Horses...............
Sky Above and the Mud Below
The (French-Dutch).............
Small Hours, The...............
Some People (British)..........5
Spartans, The..................
Spiral Road, The...............
State Fair...................mu:
Story of the Count of Monte (
The (French)...................
Stowaway in the Sky
(French).......................
Strangers in the City..........
Summerskin (Argentine).........
Sweet Ecstasy..................
Swinging Along................mu
Sword of the Conqueror (Italian)......................
Tales of Terror................
Taras Bulba....................
Tartars, The (Italian).........
Tarzan Goes to India...........
Taste of Honey, A (British).., Telltale Heart, The (British).
Temptation (French)............
Ten Who Dared.................hi
There Was a Crooked Man
(British)......................
Third of a Man.................
13 West Street.................
300 Spartans, The (see Sparta Three Stooges in Orbit, The.. Through a Glass Darkly (Swe
Tiara Tahiti (British).........
Too Young, Too Immoral. . .
Touchables, The................
Trojan Horse, The (Italian)..
Twenty Plus Two................
Two Weeks in Another Town
Valiant, The (British).........
Very Private Affair, A (Frenct
Waltz of the Toreadors, The
(British)...................
War Hunt.......................
What a Carve Up! (British).. Whistle Down the Wind
(British)...................
Wild Westerners, The...........
Womanhunt......................
Wonderful World of the Brot
Grimm, The.....................
World by Night, No. 2 (Italia World's Greatest Sinner, Th< Wozzeck (German)...............
Young Ones, The (British)...................m-
Zotz!..........................
Page 41:

The Consumers' Observation Post

(Continued from page 4)

RECORDINGS ARE AVAILABLE FOR ALMOST ANYTHING TODAY. One of the latest is a series called "Read, Listen, Learn" which gives instructions on how to play the piano, organ, guitar, and ukulele. Those with some native aptitude for music will probably find them useful. Entitled "Don Sellers Teaches You To Play," they are available from Don Sellers, Inc., 871 McCallie Ave., Chattanooga, Tenn. The prices range from $1.95 for introductory guitar, to $12 for a course especially adapted to the Hammond organ. The records are considered useful for adults who do not have time for formal study of music, but who want to learn how to play simple popular tunes.

THAT ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILE that Aunt Emma used to drive is again available, made by Stuart Motors, Inc., Kalamazoo, Michigan. It sells for $1700 and can go as fast as 35 miles an hour. It is not, however, recommended for driving on turnpikes and thruways on which the top speed is 65 miles an hour.

SHAMPOOS THAT CONTAIN SPECIAL INGREDIENTS to counteract dandruff have rather low popularity. According to Chemical Week, the leading product of this type is Helene Curtis' Enden which contains Vancide 89 (N-trichloromethylmercapto-4-cyclohexene-l,2-dicar-boximide) and sodium tetrathionate 2-chloro-m-xylene. Procter & Gamble is currently introducing an anti-dandruff product called Head & Shoulders in which the essential ingredient is zinc-2-pyridine-thiolloxide. The journal points out that the difficulty in developing such products is that the chemical suppliers don't really know what causes the conditions they are trying to cure.

There is one theory that dandruff is caused by living organisms, another that it is just the natural shedding of dead skin. The fact that the sales of such products are "unspectacular" would indicate that consumers are not much concerned about their dandruff problems .

THERE ARE SO MANY POISONS IN HOUSEHOLD CHEMICALS, cleaning and polishing agents, paint, and garden sprays and powders that it is hard to prevent children from getting into them. What to do in a case of accidental poisoning, a first-aid card conveniently divided into 5 sections: Inhaled Poisons, Skin Contamination, Eye Contamination, Injected Poisons, and Chemical Burns, should be posted in the bathroom or kitchen of every household. Advice is given on how to prevent poisoning and how to treat it until the physician comes. Called "Danger Lurks," it is available at 5 cents from the American Medical Association, 535 N. Dearborn St., Chicago 10, 111.

* * *

Just off the press. . .

the big new 224-page ANNUAL!

The consumer's guide to the market, the handbook of buying, a consumer's encyclopedia, are all names that have been applied to the big ANNUAL by those who have purchased and used it. Published each September, it is a handy summary of product ratings and useful buying information in many fields. It is fully indexed for ready reference, and is kept up to date by the monthly issues of Consumer Bulletin.

The big ANNUAL is available separately or at a special combination rate with a subscription to Consumer Bulletin. To order a copy or a subscription just turn the page for a convenient form.
Page 42:

HOUSE PLANTS THAT HAVE BEEN PUT OUT IN THE GARDEN during the summer should perhaps be left there. For winter decoration, bring in only young vigorous specimens. According to Louis P. Politi, horticulturist at the New York Botanical Gardens, old potted plants should be thrown out, and African violets should never be kept more than 6 months. He considered it particularly important to have the proper soil for potting plants, for the right soil is a more important factor in the health of plants than fertilizer or any other addition.

* * *

MISLEADING ADVERTISING FOR WATCHES sold by the Winkler Watch Co. and the Hilton Watch Co. has been ordered stopped by the Federal Trade Commission. The Chicago Better Business Bureau, which reported the action, noted that it had received numerous complaints from customers who had returned watches for repair under terms of the advertised guarantee for Hilton watches. Although receipt of the watches was acknowledged, repeated requests for the return of the merchandise repaired were ignored.

* * *

TACKING POT HOLDERS, KITCHEN MEMOS, AND SHOPPING LISTS to metal cabinets just couldn't be done, until recently. Now something new has made its appearance in chain variety stores, such as Wool-worth' s, called magnetic thumbtacks that will work only on iron or steel. They are really not tacks at all, but little round magnets that will hold sheets, memos, and notes of paper to metal cabinets or the refrigerator. One of these magnets sewed into the corner of a pot holder will permit it to be hung on a cold metal surface conveniently near the cooking surfaces or oven. The magnet is an excellent device for holding bobby pins together in a dish or tray on the dressing table. (Warning: keep watches away from the magnet or they will be "pixilated.") Maggie's Handy Magnetic Helpers. Maggie Magnetic, Inc., Paterson 2, N. J., 3 small round magnets for 29 cents, were found to be effective. Both sides are black but a useful magnetic effect is on only one side. Tagnets Magnetic Thumbtacks, Tagnets, Madison, N. J., 3 small round magnets for 29 cents, were more effective, and these had the marked advantage that either side could be used to hold papers. The less-magnetic side was painted red so that it could be instantly distinguished from the strongly magnetized side. (Caution: Keep these little pill-size magnets out of baby's hands.)
Page 43:

Should you 'dry clean' your car- or wash it with water?

From time to time CR receives inquiries from car owners for information on various products that are sold for "dry" cleansing the finish of automobiles. This type of item is heavily advertised through newspapers, magazines, and the mails, and it is evident that the advertising claims of quick and easy car cleaning tempt many car owners. "Dry" washing or "dry" cleaning simply means wiping the dust and dirt and other soil from the surface of the car with a cloth, without the use of water. The cloth, generally a cotton flannel, is usually treated with some oil, such as mineral oil or one of the silicones, and sells for from $2 to $4. Another product in this category is sold in the shape of a long-handled mop that is claimed to be impregnated with a substance which was discovered by an unnamed French chemist.

Many of the claims made for these products are exaggerated, or without merit, and for the benefit of the lacquered or enameled finish, a muddy, dirty, or dusty car should not be cleaned with a dry cloth. Some manufacturers advise or imply in their advertisements that the use of their product makes it unnecessary ever to polish or wax the car again. This, of course, just isn't so. Further, dry wiping will not remove sap that has fallen from trees, water spots, bird droppings, bug residues, or discolored spots and streaks that develop on light-colored paints where dirty water has run down over a painted surface.

Dry wiping the finish of a car with a cloth, without flushing with water, can, and eventually will, scratch the paint-not directly by the cloth but by the grit that is rubbed into the paint. Even the glass of windows and windshield can be scratched by road dust and grit.

How severely the paint finish becomes scratched depends on the type and amount of grit present on the car, how often the car is

The photograph above shows a small area of automobile enamel as it appeared before (top) and after (bottom) dry wiping with a treated flannel cloth sold for ''dry cleaning" of automobiles. The lower area had been exposed so it could become soiled; the upper area was kept clean, and protected by a covering. The evident scratches were those that resulted from rubbing the painted finish several times, until the visible soil had been removed.

Water spots or streaks, which can be seen in the photograph, were not removed during the dry wiping. (A wet sponge or cloth will remove such spots.)

The above illustration is about actual size, and the picture was not retouched; the scratches are more in evidence in the picture than they would be in normal lighting, as strong side lighting was used to make the markings reproducible in the Bulletin.

wiped with the dry cloth, and the pressure applied to the cloth during wiping. If the car is driven over dirt roads where sand, mud, and dust are kicked up and deposited on the car, the accumulations of grit can be considerable; frequent "dry washing" in this instance will very likely mar the fine paint finish in a relatively short time. With driving done on highways, on the other hand, there is less accumulation of grit, and thus a decreased amount and degree of scratching. We are aware that some auto owners may use the dry-cleansing method of rubbing grit and dirt away without washing the car first, and are convinced that they are doing no par-

(Concluded on page 33)
Page 44:

Are your FRIENDS and Neighbors Talking About the big new CR Annual

Coming IN FUTURE BULLETINS

1963 TELEVISION RECEIVERS

TOYS

SNOW BLOWERS

JUST OFF THE PRESS!

It is a 224-page consumer's encyclopedia of buying information, fact-filled pages of product ratings and money-saving advice. See page 42 for a convenient order blank.

Dominion Dormeyer Lady Sunbeam Lady Vanity Oster

HAIR DRYERS

Ronson

RotoBroil Duchess Sears Universal Waring Westinghouse

ELECTRIC CAN

BVI

General Electric

Lancer

Peerless

OPENERS

Ronson

Vogue

Vornado

Westinghouse

Consumer Bulletin

The pioneer consumer research magazine, testing and reporting on products since 1928.

CR s staff of engineers and scientists apply their skills to determine the facts about product quality, performance, economy, and value.............and sort them from the fiction of overstated product advertising and unwarranted high prices.


Here are the 25 most recent documents added to the library...
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Thumbnail Image of Download 1956 Washer Service Instruction Film Narrative and Service Manual
Here are two complete Kelvinator automatic washer manuals into one .pdf file. The first is the narrative to the "Service Instruction Film-Strip" on Installation and Disassembly. The second part is the complete Service Manual and Parts Guide to all 1956 Kelvinator automatic washers.


Automatic Washers
Published by:
Kelvinator
1956 91 68mb $5.99
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Thumbnail Image of Download 1976 Frigidaire Dishwasher Service Manual
Here is the comprehensive service manual to all 1976 Frigidaire automatic dishwashers, both built-in and portable models.

Models include: DWU-2, DWU-3, DWU-4, DWU-5
DWM-2, DWM-3, DWM-4, DWM-5.
Dishwashers
Published by:
Frigidaire
1976 68 40mb $5.99
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Thumbnail Image of Download 1974 Frigidaire Touch-and-Cook Electric Range Service Manual
Here is the complete service manual to Frigidaire's first digital touch-pad electric Range!

Full specifications, service and troubleshooting sections included.

Models include: RCIE3-39CDW and RCIE-39CDW.
Ranges/Stoves
Published by:
Frigidaire
1974 42 32mb $7.99
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Thumbnail Image of Download 1965 Philco Duomatic Washer-Dryer Brochures
Here are brochures for the entire 1965 line of Philco Duomatic Combination Washer-Dryers. Full images and specifications and machine price-list included. Special bonus, 1965 Philco gas dryers brochures are also included at the end of the document.

Duomatic Combo Models include: CE-7F8, CG-7F8, CE-7F6, CG-730, CE-730.

Dryers: DG-6F8, DG-6F4, DG-6F3, DG-6F2.
Combination Washer/Dryers
Published by:
Philco
1965 19 37mb $5.99
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Thumbnail Image of Download 1966 Philco Duomatic Washer-Dryer Brochures
Here are brochures for the entire 1966 line of Philco Duomatic Combination Washer-Dryers. Full images and specifications and machine price list included.

Models include: CE-7G8, CG-7G8, CE-7G6.
Combination Washer/Dryers
Published by:
Philco
1966 12 17mb $5.99
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Thumbnail Image of Download 1957 Philco-Bendix Duomatic Washer-Dryer Owners Manuals
Here is the complete owner's manual and operating/use and care guide to all top-of-the-line 1957 Philco-Bendix combination washer-dryers. Model: CGR-C.


Combination Washer/Dryers
Published by:
Bendix
1957 40 45mb $7.99
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Thumbnail Image of Download Easy Holiday Automatic Washer Model AEG Service Manual
This is the service manual supplement created specifically for the bottom of the line washer model AEG.


Automatic Washers
Published by:
Easy
1961 26 18mb $5.99
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Thumbnail Image of Download Easy Velva-Power Automatic Washer Model Transmission Service Manual
This is the comprehensive service manual created specifically for servicing Easy's new Velva-Power transmission when it first introduced. The Velva-Power transmission was Easy's own design when they moved away from using a Beam style tranmission that was so common in Speed Queen and other brands of solid-tub automatic washers.


Automatic Washers
Published by:
Easy
1961 20 13mb $5.99
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Thumbnail Image of Download 1966 Maytag Lets Talk Service
Here every Maytag service bulletin from 1966. These fact-packed bulletins are showing off the new line of Maytag automatic washers produced starting in 1966.

These fact-packed bulletins report model changes, wash and dry cycle changes, service tips, new products being introduced, new parts, reports from the field, etc. Washers and dryers are both covered.
Automatic Washers & Dryers
Published by:
Maytag
1966 63 44mb $7.99
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Thumbnail Image of Download 1964 General Electric Washer and Dryer Brochures
Here are beautiful brochcures highliting the 1964 line of GE Washers and Dryers. Images and full specifications for each model included.

Models include: WA-1250Y, DA-1220Y, WA-950Y, DA-920Y, WA-805Y, DA-820Y, WA-650Y, DA-620Y, WA-550Y, DA-520Y.
Automatic Washers & Dryers
Published by:
General Electric
1964 18 36mb $7.99
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Thumbnail Image of Download 1961 General Electric Combination Washer-Dryer Brochures
Here is the complete brochure showing off the 1961 models of the GE combination washer/dryer.

Models: WD-860V, WD-560D.
Combination Washer/Dryers
Published by:
General Electric
1961 4 9mb $5.99
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Thumbnail Image of Download 1984 Maytag Dishwasher Service Manual
Here is the comprehensive service manual to all Maytag Jet-Clean Dishwashers from the early and mid 1980s.

Models Include:
"00 Series": WU-100, WU-WC300, WU-500, WU-WC-700, WU-900
"01 Series": WU-101, WU-WC301, WU-501, WU-WC-701, WU-901
"02 Series": WU-102, WU-WC302, WU-502, WU-WC-702, WU-902
Microprocessor Model: WU1000

Full troubleshooting, cycle-charts, schematics and servicing information is included.
Dishwashers
Published by:
Maytag
1984 213 103mb $7.99
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Thumbnail Image of Download Maytag Automatic Washer model A212 Operating Instructions
Here is the complete Operating Instructions manual included with all Maytag A212 washers.


Automatic Washers
Published by:
Maytag
1983 8 7mn $5.99
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Thumbnail Image of Download 1962-1987 KitchenAid General and Service Bulletins
Here is a collection of the majority of KitchenAid appliances General Bulletins and Service Bulletins. The majority of information concerns dishwasher with a bit of disposer and trash compactor information included as well.


Dishwashers
Published by:
KitchenAid
1987 266 147mb $7.99
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Thumbnail Image of Download Westinghouse Terrace-Top Range Owners Manuals
Here is a set of owners manuals for several Westinghouse Terrace-Top Range in the 1960's.

Models include: NTE3B, NTE3C, NTE3D, KTE3C, KLD30, KTB30A.
Ranges/Stoves
Published by:
Westinghouse
1966 48 34mb $7.99
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Thumbnail Image of Download 1973 General Electric Automatic Washer Technical Manual
Here is the complete technical manual for all 1973 General Electric automatic washers.

Sections include: Timer, Schematics, Select Switches, Water System, Drive System, Other Components, Cabinet Construction, Suspension system, Installation, Service Practices, Use & Care, Washability, Portable models.

Models covered:
18lb Washers: WWA9508P, WWA9500P, WWA9400P, WWA9300P, WWA8508P, WWA8500P, WWA8428P, WWA8420P, WWA8408P, WWA8400P, WWA8375P, WWA8364P, WWA8360P, WWA8305P, WWA8330P, WWA8314P, WWA8310P, WWA8300P, WWA8000P

14lb Washers: WWA7400P, WWA7350P, WWA7300P, WWA7050P, WWA7060P, WWA7030P, WWA7000P, WWA5500P, WWA5400P, WWA5000P

Portable Washers: WWP1020P, WWP1023P, WWP1150P, WWP5300P
Automatic Washers
Published by:
General Electric
1973 206 111mb $7.99
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Thumbnail Image of Download 1963 Philco Automatic Washer Brochures
Here are some beautiful brochures showing off the 1963 line of Philco automatic washers.

Pages contain full description of features, images of each model, full control panel views of each model and complete specifications.

Models include: W-236, W-234, W-232, W-231, W-233V, W-231V.
Automatic Washers
Published by:
Philco
1963 17 43mb $7.99
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Thumbnail Image of Download 1963 Philco Duomatic Combination Washer-Dryer Brochures
Here are some beautiful brochures showing off the 1963 line of Philco Duomatics, their combination washer-dryer line. Both electric and gas models are shown.

Pages contain full description of features, images of each model, full control panel views of each model and complete specifications.

Models include: CE-736, CG-736, CE-734, CE-730, CG-730, CE-730U.
Combination Washer/Dryers
Published by:
Philco
1963 17 41mb $7.99
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Thumbnail Image of Download 1963 Philco Automatic Dryer Brochures
Here are some beautiful brochures showing off the 1963 line of Philco clothes dryers. Both electric and gas models are shown.

Pages contain full description of features, images of each model, full control panel views of each model and complete specifications.

Models include: DE-636, DG-636, DE-634, DG-634, DE-632, DG-632, DE-632V, DG-632V.
Clothes Dryers
Published by:
Philco
1963 20 42mb $7.99
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Thumbnail Image of Download 1975 Maytag Lets Talk Service
Here every Maytag service bulletin from 1975. These fact-packed bulletins report model changes, wash and dry cycle changes, service tips, new products being introduced, new parts, reports from the field, etc. Washers, dryers, dishwashers and disposers are all covered.


Automatic Washers & Dryers
Published by:
Maytag
1975 62 39mb $7.99
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Thumbnail Image of Download 1955 Bendix Duomatic Owners Manual
Here is the full complete owners manual pack with every 1955 Bendix Duomatic combination washer-dryer.


Combination Washer/Dryers
Published by:
Bendix
1955 24 45mb $7.99
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Thumbnail Image of Download 1955 Bendix and Crosley Appliance Catalog
Here is the full line of Bendix and Crosley appliances. Full images and specifications for all major appliances included.


Full Catalog
Published by:
Bendix
1955 24 45mb $7.99
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Thumbnail Image of Download 1957 Kelvinator Automatic Washer Service Manual
Here is the comprehensive service manual for all 1957 Kelvinator automatic washers.

Also include is complete parts catalog for all '57 washer models as well. Having the manufacturers part number for the part you need is essential for doing internet/eBay searches to locate these rare, no longer available parts. In many circumstances they can be found once you know the part number.
Automatic Washers
Published by:
Kelvinator
1957 80 55mb $7.99
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Thumbnail Image of Download 1958 Kelvinator Automatic Washer and Dryer Service Manual
Here is the comprehensive service manual for all 1958 Kelvinator automatic washers. At the end is the service manual to the complete 1958 line of Kelvinator dryers.

Also included is complete parts catalog for all '58 washer models as well. Having the manufacturers part number for the part you need is essential for doing internet/eBay searches to locate these rare, no longer available parts. In many circumstances they can be found once you know the part number.
Automatic Washers
Published by:
Kelvinator
1958 94 66mb $7.99
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Thumbnail Image of Download Ironrite Comprehensive Service Manual to Mangle Ironers
Here is the comprehensive service manual to most ironrite ironers.

MODELS Included: XL-20, 25, 30, 34, 35, 38, 40, 42, 45, 50, 55, 60, 62,65, 70, 72, 75, 80, 85, 90, 91, 94, 95, 800, 850, 880, 890, 202.

Sections include:
General Service Information
Warranty
Return of Defective Parts
Pressure
Care of Shoe
Care of &11 Padding
Oiling Instructions
Thermostats
Shocks
Correcting Oil Leaks
Vibration
Checking Heat Failures
&11 Drive Adjustments
How to Remove Clutch
Motor Repair or Exchange Policy
How to Handle Motor Exchanges
Westinghouse Motors
Emerson Motors
Delco Motors
General Electric Motors
Diagram - Gear Housing
Adjusting Gas Machines
Diagrams - Shoe Assemblies
Shoe and Element Parts
Wiring Diagram
Electrical Parts
Switch Parts
Roll Parts
Roll Small Parts
Drive Gears
Clutch Parts
Adjustable Knee Control Parts
Non-adjustable Knee Control Parts
Motor Mounting Parts
Frame and Base Parts
Cabinet Parts
Gas Machine Parts
Repair Parts

If you're Looking for the Owners Manual and instructions for the Ironrite please see this The Quick and Easy Way to Beautiful Ironing
Ironers
Published by:
Ironrite
1960 154 87mb $9.99

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Please note that all publications presented here at Automatic Ephemera are on average between 35 and 85 years old. This information is presented as a educational/historical reference on vintage products of the past. Any trademarks or brand names appearing on this site are for nominative use to accurately describe the content contained in these publications. The associated trademarks are the sole property of their registered owners as there is no affiliation between Automatic Ephemera and these companies. No connection to or endorsement by the trademark owners is to be construed.