VINTAGE OWNER'S MANUALS, SERVICE MANUALS, BROCHURES AND PUBLICATIONS
FAQ
Your Recent Purchases
Contact Us
Home
Welcome to Automatic Ephemera, an independent organization/library for historical research and education, sharing public domain documents relating to vintage products.


 


Please search through our database, we have hundreds of available documents...

Search Publisher: 
   Restrict to Product: 

Full Text Search of Automatic Ephemera:   

Clear and Start New Search


Review Selections & Checkout


The Truth About Automatic Washers


Published by Blackstone in 1949-- A "factual", comparative analysis that will help you select the best automatic washer for your needs. Similar to the comparison books done by Maytag in 1970s.

Number of Pages: 20
File Size: 8mb
Download Fee: $4.99

  Add The Truth About Automatic Washers to cart
Please note that all publications presented here at Automatic Ephemera are on average between 35 and 85 years old. This information is presented as a educational/historical reference on vintage products of the past. Any trademarks or brand names appearing on this site are for nominative use to accurately describe the content contained in these publications. The associated trademarks are the sole property of their registered owners as there is no affiliation between Automatic Ephemera and these companies. No connection to or endorsement by the trademark owners is to be construed.


Review Selections & Checkout

Here are the 25 most recent documents added to the library...
Add
High-Res
Download
to Cart
Click Thumbnail for More Information Title
and
Description
Product Year # of Pages File
Size
Download
Fee
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download Frigidaire Tech-Talk Introducing the WO-65 Automatic Washer
Here is one of the earliest issues of Tech-Talk (#7). It's main focus is the introduction of the WO-65 Frigidaire Automatic Washer.


Automatic Washers
Published by:
Frigidaire
1950 12 13mb $5.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download 1955 Frigidaire Dryer Tech-Talk Service Manual
Here is the complete service manual to the 1955 models of Frigidaire clothes dryers. Models DV-35 and DV-65.

Complete servicing, troubleshooting and wiring diagrams.
Clothes Dryers
Published by:
Frigidaire
1955 16 14mb $5.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download 1957 Control-Tower Frigidaire Dryer Tech-Talk Service Manual
Here is the complete service manual to the 1957 models of Frigidaire clothes dryers. Models DI-57, DD-57 and DS-57, Di-1-57.

Complete servicing, troubleshooting and wiring diagrams.
Clothes Dryers
Published by:
Frigidaire
1957 24 22mb $5.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download Westinghouse Service Bulletin
Here are some very notable Westinghouse Service Bulletins displaying new Agitator information, model features charts, cycle charts and specifications for Westinghouse Automatic Washers.

Also included is a 1967 Dishwasher Utility bulletin entitled "You and Your New Dishwasher" - Helpful hints to get the best results.
Automatic Washers
Published by:
Westinghouse
1969 23 20mb $5.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download 1960s Hotpoint Washer-Dryer-Dishwasher Identifier
Here are models and images of the following Hotpoint Washers, Dryers and Dishwashers:

Automatic Washers: 1960 to 1963
Dryers: 1960 to 1963
Dishwashers: various 1958 to 1965 models
Automatic Washers & Dryers
Published by:
Hotpoint
1960 31 16mb $5.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download 1962 Dexter Quick-Twin and Standard Wringer Washers Brochures
Whimsical brochures by Dexter highlight features and specifications of their Philco-made wringer washers.

Models include:
3-D9, 3-D9P, 3-D7, 3-D7P, 3-D5, 3-D5P, 3-D3, 3-D3P, 3-D2, 3-D2P, 3-D1, 3-D1P, 1-DO, 1-DOP, 3-D4
Wringer Washers
Published by:
Dexter
1962 16 39mb $5.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download Blackstone Automatic Washers 250-350 Service Manual
Complete service manual to Blackstone washers from 1954 to 1958. Models 250 and 350.


Automatic Washers
Published by:
Blackstone
1957 52 39mb $7.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download 1960 Blackstone Automatic Washer Service Manual
Service manual to Blackstone Automatic washers models: WAA50, WAA60, WAC45, WAC55, WAC65 and WAC75.

Service manual claims this particular transmission design spins the tub at 680rpm which is one the better water extracting washers of the time.
Automatic Washers
Published by:
Blackstone
1960 23 17mb $5.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download Appliance Manufacturer Magazine - July 1957
Appliance Manufacturer is a fun magazine to read for any collector or enthusiast of vintage appliances, electronics and other vintage home products. This highly entertaining magazine covered the design and manufacturing areas of Major Appliances, Small Appliances, Small Electrics, Radios, Televisions and other electric home products from the mid-20th century.

Of particular interest:

Very cool article on GM Frigidaire appliance designers and how they work together in an atmosphere of creativeness.

Maytag introduces their Halo-of-Heat dryer.

GE Kitchen Center wins awards for GE designers and engineers.

Surprising number of new appliances at Chicago Summer Market show.
Trade Publications
Published by:
Appliance Manufacturer
1957 106 140mb $12.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download 1977 Hotpoint Appliances Catalog
Here is a complete product catalog from Hotpoint showing their complete line of major appliances.

Photos, descriptions and detailed specifications are included.
Full Catalog
Published by:
Hotpoint
1977 52 83mb $9.96
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download 1956 Philco Agitator Automatic Washer Service Manual
Here is the comprehensive service manual to all Philco agitator washers, pre-Automagic models.

Models include: W266, W264, W262, W268.

Sections include: Installation, Specifications, Major Assemblies, Service Procedures, Wiring Diagrams, Troubleshooting, Supplement model information.
Automatic Washers
Published by:
Philco
1956 41 24mb $7.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download 1956 Bendix Front Loading Automatic Washer Service Manual
Here is the comprehensive service manual to all 1956 Bendix automatic washers.

Models include: WFG-D.

Sections include: Cabinet, Clothes Door, Electrical Circuits and Cycles, Electrical Controls, Installation, Latch, Motor, Pump, Transmission, Specifications, Suspended Unit Assembly, Service Procedures, Water Inlet, Water Control.
Automatic Washers
Published by:
Bendix
1956 41 29mb $7.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download 1957 General Electric Dishwasher Service Manual
Complete service manual to 1957 General Electric built-in roll-out dishwashers.

Models include: SU80P and SU60P.

Sections include: Introduction, General Information, Specifications, Washing Process, Food Soils, Stain Removal, Service Quality of Dinnerware, Operations, Capacity, Detergent, Running the Dishwasher, Operating Cycle, Component Parts, Wiring Diagrams, Installation, Servicing, Troubleshooting and Parts.
Dishwashers
Published by:
General Electric
1957 79 64mb $7.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download 1973 Waste King Dishwasher Service Manual
Here is the comprehensive service manual to servicing most of the 1970's Waste King dishwashers. Updates through 1977 are included in this manual.

Models include: 410, 511,510, 575, 610, 711, 710, 777, 750, 878, 810, 811, 910, 911, 950, 979

Sections include full troubleshooting, repair, how to test and wiring diagrams.
Dishwashers
Published by:
Waste King
1973 63 47mb $7.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download Electrical Dealer Magazine - January 1955
Electrical Dealer Magazine is a fun magazine to read for any collector or enthusiast of vintage appliances, electronics and other vintage home products. This highly entertaining magazine covered the retail sales and merchandising areas of Major Appliances, Small Appliances, Small Electrics, Radios, Televisions and other electric home products from the mid-20th century. This was the Life and Look Magazine of the appliance world, in the same large size 10x13 format.

Highlights of this issue, including Norge, Whirlpool, Speed Queen and Hamilton Laundry ads...

Sales And Profit Outlook For '55
1955 Selling Schedule
Trade-Ins
Personalized Selling
Is Discount Selling Losing Its Punch?
What The Public Thinks About Discounting
The Winner: The Man Who Stays In Business
Mathematics Of Price Cutting
Margins, Franchises, and Fair Trade
"Sales Will Rise For Those Who Work"
Captive Election Audience Sees New Line
Complete Food Plan Training Pays Off
Check And Counter Check
They Call It 8 to 5
His Automatic Washers Speak
Contact Plan Produces TV Sales Daily
Selection And Color Boost White Goods Sales
Sales Clinic
News And Trends
New Products Section
News Of The Month
Trade Publications
Published by:
Electrical Dealer
1955 112 106mb $12.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download 1970 Frigidaire Skinny-Mini Washer Dryer Service Manual
In 1970 Frigidaire introduced the world's very first all-in-one stacked washer/dryer unit. It was called the Skinny-mini and used a one piece plastic molded agitator and tub combination referred to as an "agi-tub".

Here is the Tech-Talk service manual to the very first of these models.

Models include: LCT-2 and LCT8-2.
Automatic Washers & Dryers
Published by:
Frigidaire
1970 99 75mb $7.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download 1962 Whirlpool Automatic Washer Owners Manual
Full Owners Manual and Use/Care guide to 1962 Whirlpool Automatic Washers


Automatic Washers
Published by:
Whirlpool
1962 20 19mb $5.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download 1950 Westinghouse Laundromat Automatic Washer Owners Manual
Complete owners manual and operating instructions to Westinghouse Laundromat washers models L-5 and RL-1.


Automatic Washers
Published by:
Westinghouse
1950 44 28mb $7.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download 1960 Frigidaire Washer and Dryer Fold-Out Brochure
Here is a sales literature brochure from Frigidaire in a fold-out format for their entire line of Washers and Dryers in 1960. Brochure is scanned at super high resolution of 600dpi. All models from 1960 are included.


Automatic Washers & Dryers
Published by:
Frigidaire
1960 2 38mb $4.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download 1963 Frigidaire Refrigerator-Freezer Tech-Talk Service Manual
Here is the comprehensive service manual to all 1963 Frigidaire Refrigerators. Models include:

S-10-63, D-10-63, DA-12-63, D-12-63, D-14-63, FD-11-63, FDS-13T-1, FD-13T-63, FI-13T-63, FPDS-14T-1, FPD-14T-63, FPD-14B-63, FPI-14T-63, FPI-14B-63, FPI-16B-63.
Refrigerators/Freezers
Published by:
Frigidaire
1963 124 81mb $7.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download 1965 General Electric Dishwasher Use and Care Guide
Complete owners manual from approximately 1965 to GE Dishwasher model SD400.


Dishwashers
Published by:
General Electric
1965 12 7mb $5.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download 1973 General Electric Dishwasher Use and Care Guide
Complete owners manual from approximately 1973 to GE Dishwasher model SD300-SD370 and portable dishwasher model SC670.


Dishwashers
Published by:
General Electric
1973 16 12mb $5.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download 1959 Easy Automatic Washer Service Manual
Here is the service manual introducing the very first Velva-Power Easy Washers. The 1959 Easy Automatic Washer series Golden Regent and Riviera. Models ADK and ABK.

Sections include full specifications, Installation, Operating Instructions, Cycle of Operation Charts, Tools, Dismantling, Reassembly, Replacement of Parts, Adjustment, Troubleshooting Charts and Wiring Diagrams/Schematics.

The 1959 Automatic Washers Models ADK and ABK are equipped with a completely new, revolutionized, sealed transmission. This new "Velva Powered" transmission (equipped with a direct drive motor) has been thoroughly field tested commercially and in homes. It requires no belts, pulleys, solenoids, or other devices, such as "cut off" switches.

The limited out-put torque clutch in the transmission accomplishes two definite purposes. It permits gradual acceleration of the wash tub without overloading the motor and controls the spin speed, preventing the tub from reaching high r.p.m. when subjected to extremely unbalanced loads, eliminating the need for any cut-off device. An internal brake applied automatically at the end of the cycle allows the spin tub to come to a smooth gliding stop.

Automatic shifting from agitation to spin is accomplished by means of a two-speed, heavy duty, reversible, :Y3 H.P., 115 V., 60 cycle motor. An overload protector built into the motor prevents motor "burn-out."

A completely new type of discharge pump directly driven by the motor further eliminates pulleys and belts.

Automatic Washers
Published by:
Easy
1959 48 38mb $4.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download 1962 Blackstone Automatic Washer Service and Parts Manual
Comprehensive service manual to 1962 Blackstone automatic washers models WAD-62-82 and WAD-62-92.

Sections include: Descriptions, Specifications, Timer Cycle Diagrams, Inspection, Uncrating, Installation, Service of Cabinet, Tub and Tank Assemblies, Service of Electrical Systems, Service of Mechanical Systems, Troubleshooting and full parts manual.
Automatic Washers
Published by:
Blackstone
1962 60 30mb $5.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download 1975 Frigidaire 1-18 Washer Tech-Talk Service Manual
Here is the complete and comprehensive service manual to all full size Frigidaire automatic washers.

Models include: WCDA, Wl, WCD, W2, WIA, W4, W22, WCI

Sections include: Full specifications, timer cycle charts, Construction, Operation, Testing, Installation, Service Diagnosis/Troubleshooting Charts, Washer Analyzer, Service Procedures, Mechanism Service, Wiring Diagrams, Cycle Sequence/Timer cam charts and Schematics, Home-Ec Talk.
Automatic Washers
Published by:
Frigidaire
1975 96 77mb $7.99

25 Random Items from the Library
Add
High-Res
Download
to Cart
Click Thumbnail for More Information Title
and
Description
Product Year # of Pages File
Size
Download
Fee
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download Washdays Have Happy Endings Too with your new Frigidaire Automatic Dryer
Full owners manual and operating instructions that was packed with every 1957 Frigidaire Automatic Dryer. Imperial Filtrator, Deluxe and Super Air-Flow models DI-57, DD-57 and DS-57. This is one of my most favorite manuals that Frigidaire produced, colorful and full of wonderful photographs and hand drawn illustrations.


Clothes Dryers
Published by:
Frigidaire
1957 24 10mb $4.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download User Instructions to Kelvinator Ranges
Here is the complete Use and Care guide to Kelvinator Electric Range models RER302P and RER402P.


Ranges/Stoves
Published by:
Kelvinator
1980 20 15mb $7.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download In-Sink-Erator Reversing Action Disposer Brochure
"TWO-DIRECTIONAL SHREDDING!"

Here is a brochure highlighting the In-Sink-Erator Food Waste Disposer from the early 1950s. Complete images, specifications and installation information included. This is from a time when In-Sink-Erator an independent company and was made by the In-Sink-Erator Manufacturing Company - Racine, WI.
Food Waste Disposers
Published by:
In-Sink-Erator
1951 4 5mb $4.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download How to use your new General Electric Washer
Complete Operating Instructions and Use/Care guide to the top-of-the-line 1965 General Electric Automatic Washers.

Models: WA-954Y and WA-959Y.
Automatic Washers
Published by:
General Electric
1965 24 34mb $5.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download Marquette Automatic Washer and Dryer
Brochures for the Gambles Automatic Washer and Dryer, made by Apex!


Automatic Washers & Dryers
Published by:
Marquette (Gambles Stores)
1953 4 4mb $4.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download Stow-Away Portable Washer Brochures and Owners Manual
Now these are some rare machines, Brochures for both the Slimline and Stow-Away portable washers and dryers from Norge. Also included is the complete owners manual and operating instructions to Norge's to the Stow-Away portable washer.


Automatic Washers
Published by:
Norge
1974 12 10mb $4.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download Operating Instructions for Whirlpool Automatic Washer LXA7800
Here is the complete operating instructions to Whirlpool Automatic Washer LXA7800 and the suds saver model LXA7805.


Automatic Washers
Published by:
Whirlpool
1972 4 5mb $4.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download How to Have a Prettier Room
Here is an absolutely adorable high-school home economics flyer discussing all kinds of ways to make a girls room more lovely. Wonderful text and full of whimsical 1950's style illustrations!


Miscellaneous
Published by:
Johnson-Wax
1958 16 7mb $4.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download 1962 Frigidaire Flair Electric Ranges Owners Manual
Here is the complete owners manual, operating instructions, cleaning/care information and cooking guides to all 1962 Frigidaire Flair Ranges. Models include: RCIB-645-2, RCIB-635-2, RCDB-640-2 and RCDB-630-2.

Looking for a Service Manual for Frigidaire Flair Ranges? Please see this manual: Frigidaire Flair Service Manual
Ranges/Stoves
Published by:
Frigidaire
1961 38 23mb $7.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download 1955 Barton Automatic Washer Service Manual
Here is the complete service for Barton Automatic Washer model B400.

This model is fascinating as it appears to be built with a combination of Apex and Beam parts, but with a reversing motor!
Automatic Washers
Published by:
Barton
1955 26 28mb $4.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download A Complete Line of Refrigerators with the Newest Ideas
Brochures highlighting the 1978 line of Frigidaire Refrigerators and Freezers.


Refrigerators/Freezers
Published by:
Frigidaire
1978 16 15mb $4.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download 1957 Comprehensive Hoover Vacuum Cleaner Service Manual
One of the most comprehensive vacuum cleaner service manuals that Hoover ever produced. You will find in this Handbook information covering the operation, maintenance and repair of Hoover cleaners and other appliances made since 1919.

Sections Include:
Introduction
Standard Hoover Service
Care of The Hoover Cleaner
Lubrication Chart
CHAPTER I-LOCATING THE TROUBLE
CHAPTER 2-TESTING AND REPAIRING HOOVER UPRIGHT CLEANERS
Major Parts of Hoover Cleaners
Part 1-Handle and Cord Assembly
Part 2--Bag Assembly
Part 3--Motor and Fan Assembly
Part 4--Main Casting Assembly
Part 5-Agitator and Brush Roll
Part 6-Finish and Appearance of the Cleaner
Part 7-Hand Cleaners and Pixie
Part 8-Cleaning Tools
CHAPTER 3-TESTING THE COMPLETED SERVICE JOB
CHAPTER 4-DISMANTLING HOOVER CLEANERS
CHAPTER 6-TANK AND CANISTER CLEANER
CHAPTER 7-ELECTRIC IRONS
CHAPTER 8-COFFEE POT
CHAPTER 9-FLOOR POLISHERS and PIXIE
CHAPTER 10-FLOOR WASHERS

Vacuum Cleaners
Published by:
Hoover
1957 107 61mb $8.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download Use and Care of the Hotpoint Electric Range
Here is the complete owners manual and operating instructions that was packed with every 1949 Hotpoint Electric range with push-button controls.


Ranges/Stoves
Published by:
Hotpoint
1949 16 14mb $7.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download 1955 Sylvania Halolite Television Sets
Beautiful brochures for Sylvania's new "Super Photopower multi-matic chassis" Halolite television recievers. Models included are the: Oakland, Maynard, Mayfield, Newport, Penhurst, Lombard, Glendale, Kirkwood, Hartford, Fairfax, Dundee, Hillsdale, Berwyn, Croydon.


Television
Published by:
Sylvania
1955 29 42mb $5.04
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download 1955 Sylvania Radios
Complete brochure with beautiful images and specifications for the entire 1955 line of Sylvania Clock radios, Table radios, Portable radios and Hi-Fidelity Phonographs.


Radio/Record Players
Published by:
Sylvania
1955 22 26mb $4.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download Model 31 Instruction Book - The New Hoover Convertible Special Cleaner
Full owners manual and operating instructions for Hoover Upright Vacuum Cleaner model 31.


Vacuum Cleaners
Published by:
Hoover
1957 16 12b $4.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download 1969 Kenmore Automatic Washer, Dryer, Combination and Wringer Models
Service supplement showing some of the 1969 and 1970 line of Kenmore washers, dryers, wringer washers and coin-operated washer models along with a description of features. Also includes information on the new Quiet-Pac design as well as a full description of the new "Enzyme Soak" feature on the top of the line models.


Automatic Washers & Dryers
Published by:
Kenmore
1968 14 11mb $4.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download Just Set the Dial and Relax a While
Full owners manual and operating instruction to all 1956 Kenmore automatic dryers.


Clothes Dryers
Published by:
Kenmore
1956 12 9mb $4.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download Philco Wringer Washer Brochure for 1965
Wonderful advertising brochure for Philco wringer style washers. Includes both single tub modes as well as the dual tub Philco Twinamatic, "does the whole job at one time".


Wringer Washers
Published by:
Philco
1965 2 4mb $7.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download Frigidaire Electric Ranges for Carefree Cooking - 1940
Frigidaire produced their first electric range in 1938. This rare brochure highlights Frigidaire's thired year of producing electric ranges with beautiful illustrations and full feature descriptions and specifications. Models include: B-70, B-30, B-20, L-10, BC-5, BC-6 and A-6.

"If you only knew the change that has come over my meals! Everything I serve has that delightful flavor I've been working for ever since I started cooking. Frigidaire's modern electric cooking just doesn't include the word "failure." Delicious roasts, pies, puddings and cakes are so easy to get "just right" ... because the "Even-Heat" oven, with twin heating units and automatic controls, does all the work."
Ranges/Stoves
Published by:
Frigidaire
1939 16 18mb $4.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download Westinghouse Refrigerator Owners Manual
Here is the complete owners manual to all Westinghouse Refrigerator/Freezers from 1949.


Refrigerators/Freezers
Published by:
Westinghouse
1949 44 34mb $4.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download Instruction Manual for your new Filter Queen
Full owners manual and operating instructions for the Model 31 Filter Queen Vacuum Cleaner.


Vacuum Cleaners
Published by:
Filter Queen
1970 14 8mb $4.99
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download Beautiful 1967 Whirlpool Gas and Electric Range Brochures
Here is the full line of Whirlpool gas and electric ranges for 1967. Included are the brochures for three different "Connoisseur" Line ranges. These are high level ranges, Whirlpool's equivilent to the Frigidaire Flair.


Ranges/Stoves
Published by:
Whirlpool
1967 38 57mb $6.84
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download 1976 Kenmore Dishwasher Use and Care Guide
Complete guide to Kenmore Built-in and Portable Dishwasher models: 587.761000 and 587.760212.


Dishwashers
Published by:
Kenmore
1976 7 6mb $7.00
Add to download cart
Thumbnail Image of Download 1961-1962 Whirlpool Wringer Washer Parts Diagrams and Lists
Here is a compilation of parts lists for most of the 1961/1962 line of Whirlpool wringer washers. Each document contains a full image of the machine along with parts diagrams and part numbers for original parts. Assemblies include Wringer and Gear-Case along with Machine Parts Assemblies.

Models highlighted include: LJW950W-00, LJW850W-00, LJW750W-00, LJW650W-00 and LJW61OW-00.
Wringer Washers
Published by:
Whirlpool
1962 19 8mb $7.99

Review Selections & Checkout          --          Continue Browsing the Library

For license and copyright information related to these materials please click here.

Please note that all publications presented here at Automatic Ephemera are on average between 35 and 85 years old. This information is presented as a educational/historical reference on vintage products of the past. Any trademarks or brand names appearing on this site are for nominative use to accurately describe the content contained in these publications. The associated trademarks are the sole property of their registered owners as there is no affiliation between Automatic Ephemera and these companies. No connection to or endorsement by the trademark owners is to be construed.